Hi friends, I hope this article will provide you good knowledge about the various Organs of the United Nations Organisation (U.N.O).
The Second World War proved more destructive than the First World War. Millions of people were killed, wounded and maimed. The material loss could not be estimated. The need for a world organization to save the world from another such war was felt all over the world. As a result, the charter of the United Nations Organisation (U.N.O) was signed at San Francisco in June 1945. The U.N.O officially came into existence on October 24, 1945, with New York as its headquarters. The main objectives of the U.N.O are:
• To maintain international peace and security
• To develop friendly relations among nations
• To settle disputes which may disturb world peace and
• To render economic, social and scientific help to the backward nations.
The six principal organs of the U.N.O are the:
1. General Assembly
2. Security Council
3. Economic and Social Council
4. Trusteeship Council
5. International Court of Justice and
6. The Secretariat
The General Assembly:
Every member country of the U.N.O is a member of this Assembly. The Assembly meets once in a year but there can be special sessions under certain circumstances. It has the power to review and supervise the work of the U.N.O as a whole. It elects or nominates members of the various organs of the U.N.O.
The Security Council:
The Council has 5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members elected by the General Assembly for a two year term. China, Russia, France, U.S and U.K are the 5 permanent members. Approval of all the permanent members is essential members is essential in every case. Every permanent member of the U.N.O has the power of Veto. By using this right, a permanent member may reject any decision of the Security Council.
The primary duty of the Security Council is to maintain world peace and security. It settles the international disputes through peaceful methods. If necessary, it takes military action against an aggressor. It supervises and controls Trust territories.
The Economic and Social Council:
The members of this council are elected for three years by the General Assembly. Its main function is to make studies regarding economic, social, cultural, educational, health and other related matters at the international level and submit a report to the General Assembly. It coordinates the activities of the specified agencies.
The Trusteeship Council:
It looks after and supervises the affairs of certain territories declared as Trust Territories of the U.N.O that were earlier under the control of the League of Nations.
The International Court of Justice:
It consists of 15 members elected by the General Assembly. It settles the legal disputes of the member countries. It has also been given advisory jurisdiction. It is situated at The Hague.
It is the executable body of the United Nations. The post of the Secretary-General is an important position in the U.N.O. He is the chief administrative officer of the United Nations. New York is the headquarters of the Secretariat.
In addition to the above mentioned chief organs, the U.N.O has some specialized agencies which render valuable service to the developing and backward nations in social, economic, technical and scientific fields.