Shoe design depends on anatomy of human feet

It is beyond any shadow of doubt that any shoe design should take care of foot anatomy. Comfort and beauty both are relevant in shoe design. These days, aesthetic sense is as significant as physical comfort. Apart from physical structure of feet, the functioality of feet viz. how foot moves- is an important consideration. Shoes are used for various purposes- morning walk, jogging, domestic use, office use etc. Shoe design must take in consideration the intended use. Choice of shoe materials as well as designing depends on intended use as well as aesthetic sense. Not only the shoes should be comfortable. These should also be impressive.   

Foot anatomy

The foot movement depends on many components that function in coordination. Foot movement is a function of toes, heels, legs and joints. The shoes must be designed so as to give an ease in movement. Bones give structural support. The heel bone adjoins the tarsel and metatarsal bones, which are almost rigidly joined together.  The metatarsals and toe bones are joined. The ball of the foot enables walk. The ball is formed by the joints between the metatarsals and the phalanges. The bones are held together by ligaments and tendons. The heel bone is attached to the calf muscles by achilles tendon. This enables walking, running, jumping etc. Feet bear boduy weaight and provide movement. The toes provided balance. The function of feet may be compared to gear system in vehicles. First, body weight is placed on thye heels. Then this shifts to tha ball of the foot. Ultimately, the weight is on the toes.

Designing of shoes

As the insole supports the foot, its area should be wide enough. The insoles of a shoe may be compared to a bed of nails. Close spacing of nails enables one to to lie on a bed of nails without tearing the skin because the body weight is deistributed between many contact points. Wide spacing of nails would be painful.

Comfort should not be compromised

Comfort should not be compromised for fashion or looks. In fact, the podiatrists are well employed only because shoes are badly designed. The high heel pointed shoes may be fashionable but these are very uncomfortable to women. Many foot problems as blisters, calluses, ingrown nails, bunions and hammer toes arise form bad fitting shoes. The pointed shoes force the big toe into an unnatural position. consequently, misalignment of several bones in the forefoot occurs. The women's high heeled designor shoes with narrow toes make the foot slide towards the front of the hsoe. This causes deformity of the toes. Besides high heel shoes also arise in posture problem affecting spine.The shoes must provide enough roomin the vertical direction so that  these may not press the toe nails and the toe surface. This may cause production of ingrown toe nails and foot corns.

Designing of boots

Boots are the footwear that cover foot and ankle. Therer are various functions of boots. These provide protection to legs against snake bites or thorny bushes. There may be also long boots extending up to the knee. Most common type of boots are:   Safety boots, Hiking boots, ski boots, wading boots and cowboy boots. 

Ideal Shoe

In view of divergent activities, no shoe may be called 'perfect' or all purpose.  One perfect for hiking may not good for running. The design of shoe must take in account the specific purpose. A hevy lifter needs shoes with steel toes to protect the feet. For running, you need light and well ventilated shoes with sole that minimizes impacts. For office, comfortable and stylish shoes are needed.

Imortant considerations  

A shoe designor has to begin with basic style viz. open toe, close toe,sleek toe, boots, flats, slippers, sneakers etc. Selection of choice of style prepares groundwork for further designing procedure. While designing woman's shoe, first decise on type of heel. One may choose from platforms, stiletos, chunky heels. Next the height of heel is considered. For men, shoes like loafers have one inch heel. The sneakers are flat surfaced with half an inch sole. This results in some extra height to the wearer. There are a variety of materials to make shoes with. Choosing right mateials is an important part of shoe designing. Some of the materials are- leather, canvas, cloth, denim, imitation leather. The selection of materials is significant for giving unique style to shoes. color gives distinct looke to shoes. A solid color or color combination may be selected. Patterns like stripes, polka dots, checkers may be selected. Also, he may decide about embelishments, on the shoe. The shoes may be decorated with neads, embroidery etc.

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