Dictatorship in Italy.
Dictatorship is a one man rule or centralized rule.After the end of World War I in 1918, the representative democratic system was adopted all over the world instead of royal reigns.During 1920-1930, Europe was divided into two types of nations namely
1. Winning Nations: The Winning nations were the winners of World War I and were called as the allied powers. They were France, Italy and England.
2. Defeated Nations: The nations defeated in World War I were called as the central powers.They were Bulgaria, Hungary, Austria, Germany and Turkey.
Both the defeated as well winning nations were deeply affected by the war.They had become bankrupt.The financial condition of the defeated nations was too bad, mainly due to losses in war and the humiliating treaties imposed on them.
Rise of Dictatorship: After World War I, the global situation had become unstable and alarming.The world economy collapsed due to financial depression which resulted in wide spread unemployment and inflation.This gave rise to dissatisfaction among people.There was a growing tension among defeated nations as they were imposed with humiliating sanctions and war reparations.The League of Nations which was formed after World War I to maintain global peace and order failed in its objective.It could not restrict ambitious conqueror nations from territorial expansion.The hope of getting security from League of Nations was completely shattered.Even the democratic governments started collapsing and hence people lost faith in democracy. People started believing that there problems could be solved only by military means and hence they started gaining faith in another form of rule called as centralized rule.This led to the rise of dictatorship.
Italy after World War I: Italy was one of the victorious nations of the World War I.But it had become bankrupt due to the financial losses incurred during war.Italy was disappointed by the allied nations as it was not given the promised Italian speaking areas of Germany and Austria, Port of Fume and colonies in Africa e.g.Ethiopia.and even it was deprived of share in war reparations.There spread a sense of frustration in Italy.
Reasons for rise of dictatorship in Italy: After first World War, the economy of Italy had become unstable. Industries were shut down.Trade and business came to stand still.As industries were closed there was widespread unemployment.Production of goods came to stand still, there was scarcity of essential commodities. Hence the prices of goods sky rocketed.Soldiers too became jobless.There was no security of life and property. People of Italy lost their faith in their democratic government.Between 1919 to 1922 six coalition governments came into power in Italy.The Fascist forces played their leading role in driving Italy out of depression.In the year 1922, Fascist party captured power in Italy under the leadership of Benito Mussolini.
Fascism of Benito Mussolini: Benito Mussolini was a son of Blacksmith.He participated in first World War as soldier.In 1919, he formed Fascist party.He started giving assurances to people through different public programmes. He ensured them that he would revive the reputation and past glory of Italy and would give them bright future.He organized the Fascist Party.It was originally a combating unit with its activists in black uniform.He made a 'bunch of sticks' and an 'axe' the symbol of his party, where bunch of sticks represented unity and axe represented strength.
Fascist Ideology: Fascism believed in the principle that,' nation is greater than its citizens '.It adopted the anti-communist policies.Its main aim was glorification of Italy and assuring bright future to the people of Italy.It wanted to integrate the Italian speaking areas and recapture Port of Fume and colonies in Africa.
Italy under Benito Mussolini: He made the King only the titular head.Political parties and trade unions were banned.Press was censored.Only members of Fascist party were elected to the National Legislative Council.The members and officers who opposed his policies were tried under false allegations and put behind the bars.Industrial development was given the top priority.Ideology of Fascism was spread through education.Freedom of press was restricted to ensure that nothing wrong is written about Fascism.
Mussolini's expansionist policy: In 1923, Benito Mussolini captured islands in Aegean sea from Turkey.In 1924, he captured Port of Fume by virtue of its naval power.In 1936, he attacked Ethiopia.League of Nations failed to control the expansionist policy of Italy.Italy became very aggressive under the leadership of Benito Mussolini.
The aggressive policies of Italy and other dictator nations led to international conflicts and resulted in the devastating World War II.Finally, in the year 1945 Mussolini was executed by Italians and his body was hung upside down for public viewing and as a mark of confirmation of his demise.
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