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technology history

 


Everything is movement. The destruction is therefore the prevailing factor. And these thoughts are perfect for science of government and especially with respect to technology, is to introduce techniques, methods and machinery to do the job faster and with better quality. Innovation is dynamic, constantly has to change and find the latest technology breakthroughs.

The aim of this study is to see how technology evolved and how it was applied to human activities within the organization. Its negative effects, positive and its possible applications in the future.

A general term applied to the process through which humans and machines designed tools to increase their control and understanding of the material. The term comes from the Greek words "techno", meaning "art" or "shop" and "logos," knowledge "or" science "," study area ", therefore, technology is the study or science occupations.

Some science historians argue that technology is not only essential condition for the advanced civilization and many industrial times, but also the speed of technological change has developed its own momentum in recent centuries. Innovations seem to emerge at a rate that increases in geometric progression, regardless of geographical boundaries or political systems. These innovations tend to transform traditional cultural systems, often producing unintended social consequences. Thus the technology must be conceived as a creative and destructive process at a time.

2. Science and Technology

Meanings of the terms science and technology have changed significantly from one generation to another. However, there are more similarities than differences between the two.

Both science and technology involves an intellectual process, both refer to causal relationships within the material world and employ an experimental methodology that results in empirical demonstrations that can be checked by repetition. Science, at least in theory, is less to do with practicality in their results and concerns over the development of general laws, but the practical science and technology are closely interrelated. The variable interaction of the two can be seen in the historical development of some sectors. Indeed, the notion that science provides the ideas for technological innovations, and pure research, therefore, is essential to any meaningful advance of industrial civilization has a lot of myth. Most of the great changes of industrial civilization originated not in laboratories. The tools and the fundamental processes in the fields of mechanics, chemistry, astronomy, metallurgy and hydraulics were developed before they discover the laws that governed them. Eg. The steam engine was in common use before the science of thermodynamics elucidate the physical principles that supported their operations. However, some modern technological activities, such as astronomy and nuclear energy, depend on science.

In recent years, there has developed a radical distinction between science and technology. Scientific advances often carry a strong opposition, but in recent times many people have come to fear more to technology than to science. For these people, science is perceived as an objective source and calm of the eternal laws of nature, while estimated that the demonstrations of the technology are out of control.

hunting techno

 

3. Technology in the ancient and medieval period

A technology has been a key cumulative human experience. This may be better understood in a historical context that traces the evolution of early humans from a period of very simple tools for large-scale complex networks that influence most of contemporary human life.

4. Primitive Technology

Hunting and gathering tools:

The oldest human artifacts that are known are the stone hand axes found in Africa, eastern Asia and in Europe (250,000 AC). The early manufacturers were nomadic groups of hunters. About 100.000BC, the caves of hominid ancestors of modern men contained oval axes, scrapers, knives and other stone tools.

The next major step was the control technology of fire. Hitting stones pyrites to produce sparks can light a fire and get rid of the need to keep the fires from natural sources. Was used for light, heat, cooking cereals, etc..

They also began to work with bronze and copper with which to conduct sickles and swords (Bronze Age).

Development of agriculture:


Were developed barbed harpoons, bow and arrow, animal oil lamps and bone needles for making containers and clothing. He also embarked on a major cultural revolution, changing the nomadic hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture practice, this takes place around the year 10,000 BC, in the valleys of Mesopotamia (Iraq today) the Tigris and Euphrates .

Around 5,000 BC, farming communities were established in many parts of the world, including the areas known as Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Greece, etc.. Agricultural societies in these places built of stone buildings, developed a primitive plow and improved their technique in working with metals. He also started the trade of stone. Around 4,000 BC, farming spread from these centers to the west of the River Danube in central Europe, southward to the Mediterranean shores of Africa and eastward to the Indus Valley.

The development of river Nile provided other developments. As the valley was flooded had to develop an irrigation system and canals to irrigate crops in dry season. In the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates flood occurred after the harvest season, so they developed the technique of building dikes and flood barriers.


Other early findings:

To transform minerals more efficiently rolling circles were built in the year 3,500 BC transport but most frequently used were reed boats and rafts of timber. In the market for ceramics, metals and raw materials created a brand or stamp, which identified the owner or creator.

The technology started to show its effects eg fuelwood demand has led to deforestation and overgrazing by sheep and cattle resulted in fewer new trees to grow in poor soil of the region. Thus, the training of animals, monoculture farming, deforestation and periodic flooding led to the gradual emergence of desert areas.

5. The development of cities

After the year 4000 A.C. appeared one of the most complex creations of humankind: The City.


From this point of view, technology can not be described only in terms of simple tools, agricultural advances and technological processes such as metallurgy, as the city itself is a technological system.

This fact is evident in the earliest written symbols that were used to represent a city: a circle with lines indicating networks early transport and communications systems.

The appearance of the city made possible a surplus of food and an abundance of material wealth which made possible the construction of temples, tombs and fortress. The accumulation of precious metals, construction of defensive walls and control of armies and priests claimed descent from King, who may be called the first urban technologist.

The pyramids of Egypt or Mexico symbolize the organizational power and breadth of technology of the first settlements.

The construction of these buildings and monuments huge growth market for metal products and development of water resources also came to a standardized measurement systems. In Egypt, for example. The time was measured with a calendar that divided the annual cycle of seasons in months and days.


The growth of cities also stimulated a greater need to write. Egyptians began to write on a paper-like material in hieroglyphics. Moreover, the city caused a new division of labor, the caste system. This script provides security, social status and leisure to the intellectual class of scribes, doctors, teachers, engineers, magicians and wizards. However, the army had the most resources.

 

rise of military

 

6. The rise of the military

The military technology of the ancient world was divided into three phases disconnected. In the first phase, the infantry came with leather helmets or copper, bows, spears, shields and swords. This phase was followed by the development of cars, which were initially heavy vehicles for use by commanders. The subsequent inclusion ray on wheels to lighten, and a snack and a bridle for the horse, made the car light war machine that could overtake the enemy infantry. The third phase focused on increasing the mobility and speed of the cavalry. The Assyrians, with their knowledge of weapons of iron and its splendid horsemen, dominated most of the civilized world between 1,200 and 612 BC

7. Greek and Roman Technology

In Greece, Archimedes, Heron of Alexandria, Ctesias and Ptolemy wrote about the principles of siphons, pulleys, levers, cranks, pumps, gears, valves and turbines. Some important practical contributions of the Greeks were the water clock Ctesias, the diopter (surveying instrument) of Heron of Alexandria and the hydraulic screw of Archimedes. Similarly Thales Navigation to introduce improved methods of triangulation and shaped the first Anaximander world map. However, the technological advances of the Greeks were not at par with its contributions to theoretical knowledge.

The Romans were great technologists in the organization and construction. They established an urban civilization that enjoyed the first long period of peace in the history of mankind. The first major change that occurred in this period was in engineering with the construction of huge public works systems. With the use of waterproof cement and the principle of the arch, the Roman engineers built 70,800 km of roads across their vast empire. They also built many circuses, public toilets and hundreds of aqueducts, culverts and bridges also were responsible for the introduction of a water mill and the subsequent design of waterwheels to drive top and bottom, which were used for grinding grain, sawing wood and cutting marble. In the military sphere, the Romans advanced technology with improved weapons, such as the javelin and catapult.

8. The Middle Ages


l historical period elapsed between the fall of Rome and the Renaissance (approx 400 to 1500) is known as middle age. Contrary to popular belief, there were technological breakthroughs in this period. Furthermore, Byzantine and Islamic cultures that flourished in this period we have had an important activity in the areas of natural philosophy, art, literature, religion and Islamic culture in particular raised many scientific contributions, which would have great importance in the European renaissance. Medieval society was taken easily, and was willing to take new ideas and methods of production apart from any source, came from the cultures of Islam and Byzantium, China, or the distant Vikings.

War and Agriculture:

"As for the hosts - the cavalry was improved as a military weapon with the invention of the spear and the saddle (fourth century);

- We developed a heavier armor.

- The largest horse breed.

- Construction of castles.

- Introduction of the crossbow.

- With the powder manufactured guns, cannons and mortars.

"In regard to agriculture can name: - The mill increased the amount of ground grain and lumber millers favored the formation of experts in mineral compounds.

- The spinning wheel was introduced in China in the thirteenth or fourteenth century improved the production of yarn and sewing clothes.

- The chimney was introduced in homes, saving wood increasingly scarce due to agricultural expansion.

- Improvements to the plow, produce agricultural surpluses (year 1000), increases trade and the growth of cities.

Transportation:

Elements and horseshoes, tree shoots (to effectively harness horses to carts) and the cab sped transporting people and goods. There were also significant changes in marine technology, the development of the keel, the triangular lateen sail for superior handling and a magnetic compass (thirteenth century) made of sailboats most complex machines of the era.

Other important inventions:

The clock and the press had great influence in all aspects of human life. The invention of a pendulum clock in 1286 made it possible for people not to continue living in a world structured by the daily course of the sun and each year for seasonal change. The clock was also an aid for navigation and precise measurement of time was essential for the development of modern science.

The invention of printing led to a social revolution that has not stopped yet. The Chinese had developed both the paper and printing before the second century BC, but was not widespread in the western world.

Printing pioneer Johannes Gutenberg (Germany), solved the problem of molding movable type in 1450. The intellectual life remained the domain of church and state, and reading and writing became the needs of urban existence.

Technology in the Modern Age

At the end of the middle ages technological systems had long known cities were the main feature of Western life. London and Amsterdam in 1600 had populations over 100,000 inhabitants and Paris twice that amount. Besides the Germans, the English, the Spanish and French began developing world empires. In the early eighteenth century, capital resources and banking systems were sufficiently well established in Britain as to start investing in mass production techniques that would satisfy some of those middle-class aspirations.

10. The Industrial Revolution

Beginning in England because they had the necessary technical, strong institutional support and a sales network wide and varied.

The economic changes, including better distribution of wealth and increased power of the middle class, the declining importance of land as a major source of wealth and power, and opportunistic businesses, contributed to the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain.

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Is MSD a worthy Test Captian?

MSD is a good cool captain. However his performance with his bat is not pleasing. There are lots of wicket keeper batsman with good average than MSD. Dinesk Karthik, Parthiv Patel and Saha have a decent first class average than MSD.
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