Diabetes mellitus often termed as diabetes is a disease or a disorder in which the blood glucose (sugar) level goes high.This can either be due to decrease in hormone (insulin) level (Insulin dependant)   or due to insensitivity of body cells to insulin (Non - insulin dependant).  

There is a seperate entity called Gestational diabetes in which females become diabetics only during the period of pregnancy. 

  The classical symptoms are increased urination, increase in thirst and increased intake of food.Can also have loss of wieght, blurring or double vision,giddiness,etc.,

Reasons to become a diabetic patient

1) Positive family history

2) Viral infections damaging pancreas(Mumps, Rubella)

3) Chemicals

4) Autoimmunity: body produces antibody against own antigen.

5) Excess Steroid intake

But never due to increase sweet  intake. Only people with diabetics are not advised to eat sweets because sweets contains excess glucose.But in normal patients even though there is excessive intake of glucose it is neutralised by insulin secreted by the pancreas which doesn't happen in diabetics.

Risk factors:

1) Age >40

2) Genetic factors evident by positive family history.

3) Obesity: another emerging threat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4) Sedentary life style

5) Decreased intake of dietary fibres

6) Malnutrition

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7) Alcohol consumption

8) Stress

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diagnosis:

Capillary blood sugar testing

When diabetes is suspected, random blood sugar is tested. When RBS > 200 mg/dl (or) Fasting blood sugar >126 mg/dl (or) Post-prandial sugar > 200 mg/dl.

Fasting:   Blood sugar tested after fasting for 8 hours.

post-prandial: Blood sugar tested 2 hours after food.  

PP blood sugar < 140 mg/dl is normal. Anything between 140-200 mg/dl is pre-diabetic state.

Pregnant mothers are routinely screened for during the second trimester.

Treatment:

Insulin dependant: Treat with insulin

Non-insulin dependant: Treat with oral Hypoglycemic drugs. Pre-caution to be taken while taking oral hypoglycemic drugs is to always carry Sugar pocket/chocolates with them. This is because oral hypoglycemics lower the blood glucose level. When these people starve blood glucose level is already low. Oral hypoglycemics will lower the already lowered blood glucose. Hence These people feels giddy and fell unconscious. 

They are advised to take sugar free diet. Sugar free doesn't mean there is no sugar in it. But it means that there is no glucose in it.

Also advised to wear MCR (methylcellulose rubber) chappal because diabetic patients are prone to develop diabetic foot ulcer.

 

 

 

 

 

Prevention:

1)  Regular exercise

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2)  Increased intake of dietary fibre

3) Avoid alcohol

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4) Prevent obesity

5) Avoid stress

6) Use steroids as and when required (on doctor's advice).

7) Proper diet: There is something called DASH (Dietary approaches to stop hypertension) diet. This is now found to be useful in patients with diabetes.

SYNDROME X:

In obese individual with type 2 diabetes there is hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia.


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