Characteristics of a decision support system
We should bear in mind that a decision support system define it as a way of organizing information that is intended to use in making decisions. To which the present information should be designed based on problem solving and this must be because the user should not take the decision but the DSS.
A DSS allows the decision maker to interact with it, and this should be in the user interface. A DSS can be built to support decisions once and are those that are uncommon to other routinely occurring. A DSS should be designed typically for a particular decision or a group, ie the user understand better solutions through graphs, charts or other means of presentation and it is the user interface.
We know how to use the various tools that generate DSS and in the construction of specific DSS, and DSS generators.
For the DSS, the process will work to transform the user, the decision taken and should result in a change and performance improvement in decision making.
Users of decision support system
Within organizations there are three levels: strategic, administrative and operational, that is why the operational level decisions can be automated and completely satisfactory.
The types of problems to help solve a DSS are complex and semi since such problems is registered in the strategic and administrative levels.
It is important that if the end user is busy or worried by the interaction with the DSS, which can be used by a technician or assistant agent that interacts with the computer so that decisions are taken in a way from the process and not from the mechanics.
Concepts of decision-making process relevant to the DSS
For we know that decision making is necessary to use such information, the use of theories, which results in the wisdom, the uncertainty and risk, that's why we tell whether the decision maker in analytical or heuristic is important that they take into account the solution phases such as intelligence, selection and design, as it supports in decision support systems.
Decision making under risk
Decisions are usually under three important conditions as is the: certainty, uncertainty and irrigation.
The certainty is that which shows us everything in advance before the decision, the results, consequences and depending on the requirements submitted by the user.
Uncertainty is the opposite of certainty, we have no results, or odds or the consequences of decisions.
Among these are two aspects or conditions through the risk, meaning that we have the knowledge (certainty) of alternatives (controllable variables), there are only estimates and are not in our hands the control (environmental variables) and not we are confident of the outcome (dependent variables). Under these alternatives we have a lot of decision making in enterprises or businesses are carried low risk.
The style of decision making
Usually the information is gathered, processed and used as a parameter depending on the style of decision making. And that is why decision makers are analytical or heuristic.
An analytical decision maker relies on information that is acquired and evaluated systematically to narrow alternatives and make a selection that is based on information. Where decision makers value the information analytical and quantitative models that generate and use it. As an additional comment, use mathematics to model the problem and use algorithms to solve them.
A heuristic decision maker is helping guidelines (rules), but not suits, low awareness or a system is that the heuristic is based on experience. These decision makers learn under the proceedings, that is by trial and error to find the solution. And their support is common sense for guidance.
Analytic decision maker
Heuristic decision maker
* Learn by analysis
* Use step procedures
* Rate quantitative data and models
* It provides mathematical models and algorithms
* For optimal solutions
# Learn acting
# Use trial and error
# Rate the experience
# It relies on common sense
# For satisfactory solutions
Steps for troubleshooting
Decision making (or problem solving) is a process, and is designed in phases rather than steps. Since in phases, the occurrence of behavior is enlarged and is chosen, as opposed to steps is that these are carried out through a sequence, ie we can not continue but the former has been completed and are performed independently .
The stages for decision making are: intelligence, design and selection (Simon 1965) And it starts in the way it is written.
Intelligence: is awareness of a problem or opportunity, the decision maker for business environments in internal and external review should take decisions, solve problems or opportunities to examine. The intelligence is translated as surveillance, search and review.
Design: formulate a problem and analyze alternative solutions, providing the decision maker generate and consider alternatives for their potential applicability.
Selection: The selection of the decision maker to solve the problem or opportunity identified in the intelligence phase. Including implementation of the decision maker's choice. Other authors include implementation and evaluation.
In developing a draft of an information system of various components or steps taken during the analysis stage, which helps translate customer needs in a model system that uses one more component: Software, hardware , people, database, documentation and procedures.
In an organization or company, analysis and systems design, is the process of studying the situation in order to see how it works and decide whether to make an improvement; be responsible for carrying out these tasks is the systems analyst.
Before starting any development project, leads a study of systems to detect all the details of the company's current situation. The information collected in this study provides a basis to create various design strategies. Administrators decide which strategies to follow.
Managers, employees and other end-users are increasingly familiar with computer use are having an important role in the development of systems.
All organizations are systems that act with their environment reciprocal receiving inputs and producing outputs. Systems that can consist of other subsystems and systems work called for the purposes of its implementation.
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