Pollution of air, water and land an introduction
When we see smoke, we know that the air is polluted. When water changes color, it is clear it is contaminated. When the soil does not yield crops, it is barren land, high level of noise trouble us. It is noise pollution in other words; pollution refers to the changes in characteristics of air, water and land that are unacceptable. These changes affect plants, insects, birds, animals and humans health. As the use of national resources are increases, waste increases and pollution increases too. This is because waste is a by –product of the use of natural resources. Wastes damage the environment after an extent, and turn into pollutants. Thus, we can say that overuse of natural resources leads to pollution. Moderation, industry, machines and transport have speeded up the consumption of all natural resources. The resultant pollution has affected air, water, soil and life on the earth, chemically, physically and as far as human beings is concerned, even psychologically. Our worked to day is affected by different kinds of pollution. Air, water, soil, noise, waste and heat radiation are a result of speedy consumption of natural resources.
Depending p on the form of mater, if there is smoke in air it is air, pollution; when water changes its color, taste and gets dirty, we call it water pollution. If the soothing sounds/music turns cacophonous and unbearable, we call it noise pollution. When heaps of the solid waste gets accumulated, it is pollution from solid wastes. If there is excess heating up in an area we call it heat radiation. When the soil turns barren losing all nutrients or when salts or acids accumulate in it, it is soil pollution. While some pollutants degrade into the soils on their own, others don’t. Some pollutants do not degrade on their won immediately. Some of them degrade over a period of time. Some pollutants, do not degrade on their own but when treated can turn harmless. Some pollutants cannot be made harmless with any process.
Let’s clearly understand what pollution is. When wastes exceed a limit, they damage the environment and pollute it. Let us illustrate this with an example. It is comparable to adding too much salt to our food, the high salt content in food can be referred to as pollution’ in it. Here’s another example, when we light an incense stick in a room. It gives us a pleasant smell. However, if we were to continuously light incense sticks in hundreds in the room, we will suffocate. Similarly, it’s healthy to spray cow dung water and draw rongoli in the courtyard. But, if we store large mounts of the dung near our house, our environment gets polluted.
Suspended particulate matter, dust, smoke, odor, vapor are all forms of air pollution. On all forms of pollution air pollution is the most difficult to control. When compared to air, water vapor is easier to deal with, since it can be cooled to form into water. When compared to water vapor controlling water in the liquid form is easy. In the same manner, controlling water pollution is easier than controlling air pollution. Solids are the easiest form of matter to deal with.
Hence the control and management of solid waste is very easy when compared to any other form of pollution. Keeping this in mind, pollution control efforts focus on shifting the pollutants in the air into vapor and water. To control after pollution, polluted water is evaporated with force to finally retain the solids wastes.
Pollution and diseases
It is said that about 80% of diseases in our country are water –borne. Loose motions, dysentery, diarrhea, cholera, typhoid and amoebas are all due to water pollution. While some are caused due to bacteria and viruses in the water, others are caused due to chemicals like fluoride, nitrates, lead, mercury and insecticides that flow into the drinking water sources. Other diseases like malaria and filarial are also connected to water because the diseases carrier mosquitoes and worms are sheltered in water.
Our air is polluted due to the exhaust from vehicles, burning of fuels, the excavation of mines and the manufacture of products in industries. Even the firewood, coal and cow dung patties burnt in the kitchen as fuel can damage our lungs due to the smoke. And fumes form industries carrying carbon; nitrogen and sulphur also cause diseases of the respiratory system.
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