Every year 28th February is celebrated as National Science Day throughout the country. This year also we have celebrated our 25th National Science Day. This day has got its importance in the honor of the invaluable invention of the great Physicist, Sir Chandrasekhar   Venkat Raman. Dr. C.V Raman gave India its first Nobel Prize in the field of science. He received this prize on 10th December 1930 for his invention of Raman Effect. He invented the Raman Effect on 28th February 1928 and hence this day is celebrated as National Science day

c.v raman

What is Raman Effect?

 Dr. C.V Raman has made certain observations before his discovery. He realized that:

1) The color of the sea changes along with the earth’s joint effect.

2) Whenever the clear water comes in contact with the light rays, the color of the water becomes blue.

3) Whenever a light ray passes through a transparent medium, it changes its color.

raman effect

Raman Effect

He then studied the scattering of light rays with the help of color transparency. He founded that the molecules of different materials causes the scattering of light and while scattering, the wavelength of the light rays changes. This original wavelength of the light rays can also be measured.  He came to a conclusion that if the molecules cause these changes than the molecular arrangement in various objects will have an impact on this scattering. This means that the wavelength of the scattered light rays can be useful in understanding the molecular arrangement of the objects. This invention of the wavelength of light rays, its scattering and the changes in the light rays was published as Raman Effect by C.V Raman on 28th Feb. This invention opened a new chapter in the field of Physics. Due to Raman Effect, the molecular and chemical arrangement of an object can be clearly understood.

Steps taken by Government on the eve of science day:

 1) The Central and State government organize various science based programs on the National Science Day.

2) Many Individuals and institutions who work for the expansion of science field are awarded on this day.

3) This award function is organized with the help of National Science And Technological Research Council.

4) The award includes 50,000 cash, certificate and a momento.

Role of Science in our life:

In the olden days, “Science-a boon or Curse” was a very common subject in the school essays. But nowadays this subject has totally abolished. Science and technology has paved its way in almost each and every corner. The various modern technological appliances and other useful things have become important. People have become so used to these modern things that they work for extra hours to earn extra money for buying these appliances.  These things are entering our houses but the bread earners have to stay outside for most of the time. Earlier when these appliances were not available, then the homes were filled with the family members. But now the situation is completely opposite. The houses are filled with modern appliances with merely one or two people. In spite of this, it is impossible to stop the flow and impact of science and technology.

 Science has become an integral part of our day to day life. The speed of scientific inventions has increased. Now man requires robots, computers having super speed. But is it possible for us to match with such a high speed? Man has developed this speed and now he is getting tired while running and matching himself with his speedy life. Change is the rule of life. Each and every ordinary man is creating innovations. It is also a type of research.  Struggling for life is the nature of man. This struggle has led to many big inventions. The scientists have made various inventions for human welfare. It is the duty of every individual to see that these inventions and discoveries are not misused.

Expansion of science:

 Science and technology has become the favorite subject of each and every individual. Experiment is the soul of science. It is seen that the students gets more pleasure in the laboratories and science exhibition. When Dr. C.V Raman used to be ill, his father used to do various experiments to make him feel better. Today, in order to make students more familiar and interested towards science, many science exhibitions are organized in schools at district, state and national level.


Satyendranath Bose

Scientist Dr. Satyendranath Bose, who stated the Einstein –Bose Statistical Theory, established Bengal Science Council. Nearly two lakh people work for this community. There is one more society called Adilgir in Tamil. Both these societies have the tagline; “Science for Rural Areas” .One thing to be noticed is that all the Nobel Prizes in India are received by the people of Bengal and Tamil-Nadu.

Some scientific inventions and theories:

Copernicus Theory:

 In 1543, when astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus was on his death bed, he propounded a theory stating that sun lies in the middle of the solar system and it is stable and all the other planets revolve around the sun.

Law of Gravitation:


Gravitational Law

 Gravitation means the force which pulls the two objects towards each other. This theory was proposed by Sir Isaac Newton in 1664. This law proved why things fall down from height and why planets revolve around the Sun.

Electric Current:

 Michel Federer in 1821 discovered that if a wire having electric current is coiled around a single magnetic pole than it rotates. This discovery has lead to the development of electric motor. After 10 years Federer became the first scientist who produced electric current in a single wire from magnetic field.  The credit of discovering first generator also goes to Federer.


 The British Scientist, Charles Darwin stated the theory of evolution. His theory has given a new dimension to the idea of how life developed on earth. According to this theory, all the living things on earth have evolved and changed slowly during the time span. Every living organism tries to adjust himself according to the environment and the one who fits in the environment becomes capable of surviving.

X- Rays:

 The X-ray was discovered by the German Physicist, William Roentgen in 1895. These rays can pass easily through muscles and wood but are unable to penetrate through bones and lead. This has enabled to observe the fractured bones in the body and the hidden weapons and explosives in the bags.  The discovery of X-ray has brought a revolution in the medical science and security field.


 In 1960, French scientist Louis Pasteur discovered microbes. This made people aware of how diseases were caused. He found that microbes’ cause diseases and these microbes and bacteria can be killed by heating and medicines. This discovery has made the doctors of the whole world more alert and they started washing their hands and sterilizing their equipments to make them aseptic.

Theory of Relativity:


Relativity theory

 The great scientist Albert Einstein in 1905 stated the theory of relativity. According to this theory the speed of light is near about 3 lakh km per second and it does not depend on the state and speed of the particles coming to and fro of the light rays.


 The microbes which causes diseases in or body can be killed by powerful medicines called antibiotics. In 1928, the British biologists Sir Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic Penicillin.

Science and miracles:

 Miracles mean lack of scientific knowledge. Any miracle happening in the world is either a chemical or physical procedure or simply jugglery. Sometimes it can be a mischief or an unfolded puzzle of the nature. Let us try to understand some of such miracles:

Lighting fire through water:

  It is seen widely that many charlatans and exorcists claim that they have godly powers in them and to prove this they light fire through water. People do believe in them and think that it is a miracle.  Lighting fire through water is a chemical procedure. There is chemical called sodium which is always kept in kerosene. If this sodium comes in contact with water it burns immediately. This sodium is kept by the charlatans in the havan kunda or it is placed along with some inflammable objects and water is poured over it, it gets burnt.

Piercing hook in the waist:

  In order to offer their prayers or to make some extraordinary world record, many people pierce hooks in their waist. Even if this hook is pierced in the waist, blood does not ooze out. This activity seems miraculous and dangerous and the watchers believe on it superstitiously. However science says that this is not a miracle. The fact is that the hook is sharp and glossy in nature. While piercing, this hook is detained in the skin and is removed slowly after 3-4 minutes. The human skin is very flexible and the waist portion has less fat on it. Hence on removing the hook, the skin becomes normal and the blood does not come out.

To lit a water lamp:

It is seen that a lamp without wick can be burnt with water instead of oil. This is done by many exorcists to prove their talent and encourage false beliefs. But this is again a chemical procedure.  When such lamp is to be lit, the juggler adds a piece of calcium bicarbide by the sleight of hand. This sodium carbide when comes in contact with water, a chemical reaction takes place and acetelyn gas is produced. This gas comes out through the pipe of the lamp cover and burns.  

To walk on burning coal

 This is generally seen on pilgrimage places. Those who make a vow or tries to prove their divine powers do walk on burning coal without any harm. But there is a scientific reason behind this activity. Basically before walking on burning coal, 4 feet wide, 8 feet long and 2 feet deep hole is dug. In this hole fire is made by burning woods and coal. The half burnt woods are removed and salt is sprinkled on the fire. Before walking on this burnt coal, people do take bath to reduce the body temperature and increase the capacity to bear the heat. If the human body comes in contact with the fire for more than 3 seconds then it burns, hence people walk speedily on the burnt coal.

Misuse of science:

 Food adulteration is the misuse of science done most widely. This adulteration can be identified by some easy methods. Due to this we can avoid adulterated food and prevent our health.



1) The water content in the milk can be identified by using lactometer. If the water content is more, lactometer drowns more in the milk.

2) The butter is sometimes mixed with flour. To identify this mixture, add some tincture iodine to butter. If the color changes to violet, it means that the butter is adulterated.

3) The pulses are often colored to make them look shiny. To identify this, add some hydrochloric acid on the pulses. If the color changes to violet, it shows that the pulses are colored.

4) To identify the adulteration in oil, nitric acid is used. If the color of the oil changes to red, the oil is adulterated.

5) The adulteration in tea can be found by using water. Take some tea powder on a piece of cloth and add water to it. If the tea is adulterated, the cloth becomes colored.

6) The red chili powder is mixed with sawdust. If the powder is mixed in water, the sawdust floats on the water surface

The adulteration is spreading very widely but at the same time research is being done by the research and development department to identify and prevent adulteration.



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