In the first century AD the portion of south India, south of Krishna River was divided into three kingdoms –Chola, Pandya and Cheras. During the medieval period the Pal lavas, the Rashtrakutas, the Cholas and the Pandya were the important kingdoms. Other kingdom was the Yadavas of Deva giri and the Hoys alas.

1) The pal lavas were the leading power in south India from 550 to 750 AD. Their most prominent ruler was Narasimha Varma who fought successful battles against the Cheras, Cholas and the king of Sri Lanka. The Pallavas kingdom was annexed by the Cholas in about 895 AD.

2) The Chalukya had a powerful kingdom in the Deccan. Pulakesin II was the greatest ruler of this dynasty. He defeated Harsha of Kanauj in 620AD. The Chalukya Empire was destroyed by the Rashtrakutas in the middle of the 8th century. After an interval of about 200 years another branch of the Chalukya again came to power. They ruled over the Deccan from 973 AD. To 1190 AD. In 1190 AD. The empire was capture by the Yadavas of Deva giri.

3) Rashtrakutas- after the decline of the Chalukya dynasty in the Deccan, the Rashtrakutas remained all powerful in the south from 753 AD. To 973 AD. The famous rock –cut temple of Kailash at Ellora was completed during their regime.

4) The Yadavas were feudal chief during the region of the Chalukya. They established their kingdom in 1190 when the Chalukya Empire split up and made Deva giri their capital. Their kingdom won over by the Khilji in 1309 AD.

5) The Cholas were the most ancient and important ruling dynasty of south India. Legend is that the Chola rules participated in the battle of Maharashtra. The dynasty maintained its power and prestige during 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD but gradually lost power. Again it came into power in the 9th century AD and held its supremacy up to the 13th century AD. The Chola Empire included almost the whole of modern Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, part of modern Orissa (Kalinga), Karnataka, Coorg, northern part of Sri Lanka and other islands. Rajaraja I and his son Rajendra Chola were illustrious Chola kings. Cholas were a great naval power and great builders. The Brihedeswara Temple or Shiva Temple at Tanjore- a masterpiece of south India architecture was built by the Cholas. This was also the golden period or Tamil Nadu Literature.




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