Production and management of fish

Fish and prawns are important sources of proteins and minerals. Fresh water fish are caught from ponds, lakes and river, while marine fish come from the sea. When we use the word fisheries in the context of marine fish, we mean parts of the sea where fish are caught. In the case of fresh water fish, a fishery may be a tank, pond or part of a river where fish are reared. The production and management of fish is known as Pisciculture.

In fisheries, the eggs are first collected and allowed to hatch in tanks are called hatcheries. The hatchlings are fed and nursed in other tanks called nurseries, from were they are shifted to rearing tanks. After two or three months, they fry are sifted to stocking tanks, from where they re caught after they attain full size.


The rearing of silkworms for the production f silk is called sericulture. Silkworms are the larvae, or caterpillars, of a type of moth. The moth lays eggs on the leaves of certain plants, like mulberry. The larvae that come of the eggs feed on the leaves and grow. When they become fully nature, they start spinning a cocoon around themselves with the help of a secretion from a gland. Normally the larvae changes in moth inside the cocoon, and the moth comes out by tearing the cocoon.

For the production of silk, the cocoons are boiled or steamed so as the kill the moths. Then they soaked in hot water to take off the gummy substance that holds their fibers together. Many of the fine fibers that make up a cocoon are brought together to form a standard, and many such strands are twisted into a yarn. This is finally used to weave silken fabric or textile. Before yearn is ready, it has to be soaked in an emulation.


In olden times, people collected honey from the nests made by bees in forests. They still do. But they also systematically rear bees in man –made hives, called apiaries. The practice of rearing bees’ production of honey, called apiculture, is not very new. Bees are reared for honey and for beeswax, the substance honey combs are made of. Polish is one of the products made from beeswax.

Bees work collectivity to construct the honey comb. Actually, worker bees make the honeycomb and clean out it chambers. They collect nectar and pollen from flowers. They make money form the nectar and pollen bred form the pollen. They also look after the larvae or babies and feed them, and protect the hive from attacks. The other two types of bees, the queen and the drones, do not participate in all this activity. The queen lays eggs and the drones take part in the reproduction. So, bees live in a society which is quite like ours, organized and marked by a division of labor. Since bees live and work together in an organized group, they are called social insects.



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