Oceans on the earth
There are four oceans. In order of their size, they are : Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arctic Ocean.
- The explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who circumnavigated the Earth, named the ocean “Pacific” meaning calm or peaceful.
- The Pacific Ocean (Area :166,240,000sq.km) is the largest ocean of the world.
- It is the deepest ocean with an average depth of 4200m.
- The Marina Trench is the world’s deepest trench with a depth of 11,776 metres.
- Most of the islands of this ocean are of volcanic or coral origin.
- The Atlantic Ocean (Area : 86,560,000 sq.km) is the second largest ocean.
- Its name is derived from Atlas, a Titan (giant) in Greek mythology.
- The Atlantic Ocean has the longest coastline.
- The Atlantic Ocean is the busiest ocean for trade and commerce since its shipping routes connect the two most industrialized regions, namely Western Europe and N.E. United States of America.
- The Atlantic Ocean was formed millions of years ago when a rift opened up on the Gondwanaland and the continents of South America and Africa separated. The separation continues even today and the Atlantic Ocean is still widening.
- The continental islands of Newfoundland and British Isles are the major ones.
- Volcanic islands are fewer and they include those of Cuba, Jamaica and Puerto Rico, Iceland is the largest island of volcanic origin.
- The Indian Ocean (Area : 73,430,000 sq.km) is the only ocean named after a country.
- The Indian Ocean is deeper than the Atlantic Ocean.
- It contains numerous continental islands, Madagascar and Sri Lanka being the largest ones.
- Some of the islands of volcanic origin are those of Mauritius, Andaman and Nicobar, Seychelles, Maldives and Lakshadweep are of coral origin.
SOUTH INDIAN OCEAN
1. Warm currents :
- South Equatorial
2. Cool currents :
- Antarctic drift
- West Australian currents
- The Arctic Ocean (Area :13,230,000 sq.km ) is the smallest of all the oceans.
- It lies within the Arctic Circle, hence the name Arctic Ocean.
- The North Pole lies in the middle of the Arctic Ocean.
- Most of the parts of Arctic Ocean remains frozen with thick ice for most of the days every year.
- It is the shallowest of all oceans, with an average depth of 1,500 m.
- It has the least salinity of all the oceans. It has a salinity of 20 unit per thousand.
- The flow of a large amount of water in a definite direction with a great intensity is known as Ocean Current.
- Ocean Currents are of two types – Hot and Cold.
The currents flowing from tropical zones of lower latitudes to higher temperate and sub polar zones are known a hot water currents.
The currents flowing from higher latitudes to lower latitudes are known as cold water currents.
The only exception to the conduction of ocean currents is found n the Indian Ocean. The flow of currents changes here with a change in the direction of the Monsoon Winds. The hot currents flow towards cooler oceans and the cold currents flow towards the warmer oceans.
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