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Modernization is a characteristic process. It brings about social, financial and political changes. The modern society changes according to social and moral ethics. Modernization means deciding an objective and processing towards its accomplishment. There is a difference between modernization and westernization. Westernization is optional, outward and personal and it has its influence on middle class and higher class people.

Definition of modernization:

It is very difficult to define modernization. Modernization means the process of becoming modern. Following thoughts are given about modernization:
1) The conversion of traditional society into modern society is called as modernization. The traditional society is supposed to adopt the modern characteristic.
2) Modernization is very extensive, multi-faceted and multi-dimensional process. Modernization brings about drastic change in all sections of the society. Changes take place in ethics, doctrines, social institutions, labor division and the rules of human relations.
3) A society having complete knowledge about its objectives and goal and along with it the capacity to accomplish them with the help of science and technology is called as modernization.
4) Modernization comprises of three aspects:
a) Modern: - It means new and recent.
b) Moderness: - It means normal conduct.
c) Modernization: - It means the purposeful process of change and development.

Process of Modernization:

Modernization is a comparative process. This process acts as a bridge between a society or a country and its objectives. Due to this, the process changes according to the country. The speed and direction of modernization is always ascending. Every society or country tries to achieve a higher standard day by day. In this process, typical social development, social and moral ethics, equipments, passion and many such qualities play a vital role. The ruling governments only give direction and speed to modernization but its implementation depends on the citizens of that country. The scientists, educated persons, social scientists, teachers, professors are important pillars of modernization.
The process of modernization is incomplete without science and technology. With the increase in urbanization, the problem goes on increasing. Modernization gives rise to bureaucracy and authorization. The development in the modern society attracts the underdeveloped countries and the traditional societies towards modernization. It is not that each and every aspect of modernization is good. It has some adverse effects on culture, society and the individual.

Characteristics of modernization:

1) The most important condition of modernization is to have a clear perception of objectives and the willingness to accomplish those objectives with the help of science and technology.

2) Modernization is not just a format but it is a comparative process. Every country is comparatively more or less modern than other country. But there is no such thing as completely modern.

3) Modernization is a continuous process.

4) In modernization, progress and development is implied. A modern society is secular and ideologically advanced.

5) Modernization progressed through the collective results of various units of the society.

6) The speed of modernization depends upon various objectives and the medium of its accomplishments.

7) The most influential medium which impels the modernization is the government and the intellectual class of society.

8) Various types of national units form the basis of modernization. These units include natural equipments, human power and technical resources. The standard of modernization depends on the average educational standards of people and the technical development.

9) Modernization is the indicator of financial development.

10) The bureaucrat social system increases through modernization.

11) Modernization is social process. The whole society is changed and modernized in this process.

Modernization in developed countries:

The use of inorganic energy resources and the increased level of literacy in almost al the developed countries of the world have caused a rapid modernization in these countries. The following qualities of modernization are found in the developed countries:

a) Commercial finance

b) Civilization

c) Autonomous administrative society

d) Educational revolution

e) Sound medical facilities.

f) Changes in personalities

g) Changes in social structure

All the countries of the world are trying to increase the average standard of living of its citizens. But the type and ratio by which this goal is achieved varies from country to country. The various features like historical background, economical and political mindset, the overall capacity required for mechanization, gives importance to various aspects in the process of modernization in different countries.

Modernization in developing countries:

The modernization in developing countries is of secondary form. The secondary form of modernization is of purposeful nature. The developing countries have various options available for solving their problems. Due to which it becomes easier for them to choose on of the various available options. Every country has different resources, technology, financial background, ideological ability, and human resources. Hence the country has to think about all these aspects while defining a goal and then progress towards its accomplishment.
The various hurdles in the process of modernization in the underdeveloped and developing countries are as follows:

1) Tradition: The society in the underdeveloped country is traditional.

2) Diversity: Although the oneness of the society is believed politically, but there are diversities in the society from cultural, ideological and financial point of view. In the new political system many groups are brought together which are different and opposite in nature. All these groups are not developed according to political science.

3) Regional conflicts: In the society there are conflicts in many groups regarding religion, language, caste, creed, state and family. The integrity if the individuals are thus limited to the groups and not the whole society.

4) Narrow minded nature: The media in the developing countries is generally specific to that particular place or region.

5) Scarcity of resources: The developing countries lack the resources required for industrial and financial development. The tendency of not shifting from place to other for work purpose is more prone in the residents of the developing country. This give rise to various unions and every union tries to gain profit from the various projects which the government undertakes for the country’s development. This groupism proves a threat to the country’s unity and the government has to spend most of its time and money for keeping the unity intact.

6) Dearth of technology: The lack of mechanization leads to undeveloped business in the country. Conversely, if the mechanization is complete and the business is well established, than in such places lack of expert management is seen.

The important elements of Indian modernization:

1) The adoption of capitalism and rejection of feudalism: This has resulted in

A) Mechanized trade

B) Increase in productivity

C) Labor division

D) Increase in means of transport and communication

E) Modernization

2) Modern and large business development

These business include factories of cotton, jute, paper and iron

3) Increase in modern means of transport and communication:

This includes postal, telegraphic and railway services

4) The commercialization of agriculture sector has abolished the dependence of villages. The agricultural mechanization increased due to the crops like tea, coffee, cotton, rubber, tobacco and sugarcane.

5) The contribution of Indian intellectuals:

The intellectuals like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Devendranath Tagore, Keshavchandra Sen, Swani Dayanand Saraswati, Ramakrishna Paramhans, Swami Vivekananda, Mahatma Fule and Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar played a vital role in creating awareness regarding modernization in the people through social awakening.

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