Theory of General Systems
Systems approach can properly be called general systems theory applied. It is important to provide a basic understanding of the rise of general systems science. Outlining the main properties of the systems and systems domains. Furthermore, a comparison is made between the assumptions underlying the analytical-mechanical approaches. This comparison demonstrates the inability of approaches to treat the domain of appropriate biological, behavioral, social and similar. The organization theory and administrative practice has undergone major changes in recent years. The information provided by management science and behavior has enriched the traditional theory. These research efforts and conceptualization have often led to divergent findings. However, there was an approach that can serve as a basis to achieve convergence, the systems approach, which facilitates the unification of many fields of knowledge. This approach has been used for the physical sciences, biological and social, as a framework for integrating modern organizational theory. The first speaker of the General Systems Theory was Ludwig von in attempting to achieve an integrated approach for the treatment of scientific problems. The goal of the General Systems Theory is not to seek analogies between science, but try to avoid scientific shallowness sciences has stagnated. This instrument used as models usable and transferable between different continents scientists, since such extrapolation is possible and in full to the respective disciplines. The General Systems Theory is based on two pillars: semantic and methodological inputs: Systematic contributions: Successive specializations of science require the creation of new words, they accumulate during successive specializations, become an almost a real language is handled only by specialists. Thus problems arise when dealing with interdisciplinary projects, as project participants are specialists in different branches of science and each handles a different semantics to others.
Methodological inputs: Hierarchy of systems: In considering the various types of systems in the universe Kennet provides a useful classification systems which establishes the following hierarchy:
- First level, static structure. You can call level frameworks.
- Second level, simple dynamic system. Considers necessary and predetermined movements. You can call working clock.
- Third level, mechanism of control or cybernetic system. The system regulates itself to maintain its balance.
- Fourth level, "open system" or self-structured. At this level, life starts to differentiate. May be considered cell level.
- Fifth level, genetic and social. It is characterized by plants.
- Sixth-level animal system. It is characterized by increased mobility, teleological behavior and self-awareness.
- Seventh level, the human system. The level of the individual being considered as a system with awareness and ability to use language and symbols.
- Eighth level, social system or system of human organizations is the next level, and considers the content and meaning of messages, the nature and extent of the value system, the transcription of images in historical records, symbolizations subtle art, music, poetry and complex range of human emotions.
- Ninth level, transcendental systems. Complete classification levels: these are the final and absolute, the unavoidable and unknown, which also have systematic structures and relationships
Historical development of general systems theory
The first formulation in this regard is attributable to the biologist Ludwig (1901-1972), who coined the name "General Systems Theory." For him, TGS should become a mechanism of integration between the natural and social sciences and be both a basic tool for training and preparing scientists. On this basis was established in 1954, the Society for General Systems Research, whose objectives were:
- To investigate the isomorphism of concepts, laws and models in various fields and facilitate transfers between those.
- Promotion and development of theoretical models in fields, which lack them.
- Reduce duplication of theoretical efforts
- Promote the unity of science through the unifying conceptual and methodological principles.
As has been noted in other studies, the perspective of the TGS is a response to depletion and inapplicability of the analytical-reductionist approaches and mechanical-causal principles (Arnold & Rodriguez, 1990b). It appears that the key principle underlying the TGS is the notion of organic whole, whereas the previous paradigm was based on an inorganic image in the world. Shortly afterward, the TGS attracted great interest and soon were developed under his wing several trends, among which cybernetics (N. Wiener), the information theory (C. Shannon and W. Weaver) and the dynamics of systems (J. Forrester). While the scope of applications of the TGS does not acknowledge limitations, when used in human phenomena, social and cultural notes that its roots are in the area of natural systems (organisms) and in artificial systems (machines). The more we recognize equivalences between organisms, machines, men and forms of social organization, the greater the chances for successful implementation of the approach to TGS, but the more we experience the attributes that characterize the human, social and cultural and their associated systems, remain in evidence his inadequacies and shortcomings.
Despite their limitations, and while we recognize that TGS now provides only partial aspects for a modern General Theory of Social Systems (TGSS), it is interesting to examine in detail. We understand that this is where setting the foundational conceptual distinctions that have paved the way for the introduction of its outlook, especially in the cultural ecological studies, political scientists, organizations and businesses and other specialized anthropological and sociological.
Role of the general systems theory
This theory has been developed with the aim of offering an alternative to conceptual schemes known as analytical and mechanistic approach to the application of scientific method. They are called mechanical because they were instrumental in the development of Newton's laws, and these come through analytical analysis, can be characterized as the most complex to the simple.Analytical approaches and mechanical failures were the following:
- They could not fully explain the phenomena as an organization, maintenance, regulation and other biological processes.
- The analytical method was not suitable for the study of systems that had to be treated holistically, the system properties of this class could not be inferred from the properties of the parties, an important assumption of the analytical approach and mechanical.
- Mechanical theories were not designed to deal with systems of organized complexity, as these showed more complex structures coupled with strong interactions.
The general theory of system has evolved to provide a conceptual framework and dialectic in which to develop appropriate scientific methods to other systems and not strictly to the physical world, and can achieve:
- Adopt a holistic approach to the systems.
- They cause the generality of particular laws by finding similarities in structure (isomorphism) through the systems.
- Encourages the use of mathematical models, changing the emphasis from a consideration of content to a structure, which helps in resolving many disputes of questionable utility.
- Promotes unity of science, by providing a coherent framework for the organization of knowledge.
General systems theory and the unity of science
Along with mathematics and philosophy with which questions the unity of science, man has developed models to study and understand the relationships of structures and real-world phenomena, which can take various forms, but they are made to achieve a better understanding of the complexity of the real world. These complexes arise at two levels: the micro level, which is concerned with the basic relations of cause and effect, these regulate the performance of elementary components, and the macro level, is where the interrelations entity elementary subsystems.
Characteristics of the various approaches to the theory of system
The reductionist: Much of the progress that has been obtained in each of the fields of science is due to the reductionist approach, which studies a complicated phenomenon through the analysis of its parts or elements. The phenomena are not only studied by the reductionist approach, there are phenomena that are explained only taking into account everything he understands. If the systems become more complicated, the explanation of phenomena that present behavior of these systems take into account the medium and full.
The reductionist approach aims at the increasing subdivision of the whole, and the study of such subdivisions while the systems approach attempts to unite the parties to pursue all logical or relative independence with respect to group belonging. System: It is an organized set of things or interacting and interdependent parts, which are related to form a unitary whole and complex. It is clear that things or parts that compose the system, do not refer to physical field (objects), but rather the functional. Thus things or parts become the basic functions performed by the system. We can list them on: inputs, processes and outputs. Isomorphism means "with a similar form" and refers to the modeling of systems similar to the original model. For example, an artificial heart is isomorphic with respect to the real body: this model can serve as a study to draw conclusions applicable to the original heart. Recursion: It is a feature of any viable system and refers to any system that contains within it a number of other systems, called subsystems, which have similar functions and characteristics superior system in which they are contained. For example, a parent company (Bank) owns subsidiaries engaged in the financial area, enabling the company to finance and individually each of these subsidiaries also has a financial area. Synergy: This term tells us that everything is different (usually larger) the sum of its parts.
The TGS has emerged to correct defects and provide the conceptual framework and scientific for those fields. The systems approach is a methodology to help the authors to consider all the ramifications of their decisions a look designed. Search similarities in structure and properties as well as common phenomena occur in systems of different disciplines. The systems approach seeks generalizations, which relate to the way systems are organized, for which they receive, store, process and retrieve information.
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