High courts and subordinate courts
The high court is the largest court of a state. There are 18 high courts in the country. Some states and union territories share a common high court. A high court consists of a chief justice and other judges whose strength depends on the size of the state. The chief justice of a high court is appointed by the president of India in consultation with the chief justice of the Supreme Court and the governor of the state concerned. The other judges of the high court are appointed by the president in consultation with the chief justice of India, the chief justice of the high court and the governor of the state. The judges of the high courts remain in the office tile the age of 62. The procedure for their removal is the same as that for the judges of the Supreme Court. The high court exercises original and appellate jurisdiction and also supervises the working of subordinate courts.
- Civil courts- the court of the district judge presided by the district judge are the highest civil court in a district and can hear appeals brought from lower courts. Smaller civil case is tried by munsifs and sub-judges.
- Criminal courts- the court of the sessions judge is the highest district court for criminal case. The district judge acts as the district session’s judge. Criminal cases are also heard by officials called magistrates in lower courts.
*Appeals can be made against the decisions of the lower courts to the courts at the districts levels.
The officers of the subordinate courts, other than the district judges, are appointed by the stage governments through competitive examinations held by the state public service commissions.
Nyaya panchyats are rural courts which try petty civil and criminal cases. Appeals for review of their verdicts can be made to higher courts.
The Lok Adalats presided by retired judges have been set up for the speedy and cheap settlement of disputes.
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