In this article we are going to learn about Micro Organisms. The organisms that are minute and not visible to naked eye are called Micro Organisms or Microbes. Micro organisms can be seen with the help of a powerful electron microscope.

Shaped of_microorganisms

Some of the Micro Organisms are:

1. Viruses: Viruses are simple in structure. They have genetic material closed in a protein coat. Some of them are rod shaped while some others have head and tail. They cannot prepare food on their own. They live in plant cells, animal cells, bacterial cells, air and water.

2. Bacteria: In bacteria, genetic material and cytoplasm are enclosed in a thick cell wall. They have very delicate filament like structures called Flagella. These may be present at one end of the body. Bacteria is having different shapes. They may be rod, spherical, comma, spiral shaped. They exist independently or in groups. These live in air, water, soil, plants, animals and humans. They can live at lowest temperature and at highest temperature in deep seas. They depend on living or dead plants and animals for their food.

3. Protozoa: They are single celled organisms. They consist of nucleus. They live in water, Soil and bodies of animals and humans. They have special structures called pseudopodia, cilia and flagella. Chlorophyll is absent in protozoans. They depend on other organisms for food.

Uses of Micro Organisms:

1.) Microbes play an important role in our daily life. 

2.) Some microbes are helpful in the preparation of food.

3.) Lactic acid bacteria turns milk into curd. Curd has a good nutritional value. 

4.) Cheese is also prepared by adding microbes to milk.

5.) Microbes play a major role in making bread, idli, dosa etc.

6.) Some vitamins are also prepared by micro organisms to human beings.

7.) Now a days Insulin which is used by diabetic patients are also from micro organisms.

8.) Rhizobium: Bacteria present in the root nodules of plants these fix atmospheric nitrogen that means they change atmospheric nitrogen to nitrates and make them use to plants. Otherwise plants cannot take atmospheric nitrogen directly. These bacteria are also called nitrogen fixing bacteria.

9.) These help in preparation of bio-fertilizers.

For preparing bio-fertilizers make a pit, fill it with twigs, leaves, cattle dung, cattle urine and soil every day. After some days due to the action of micro organisms it will be converted in to fertilizers. As this is prepared by living organisms. This is called Bio-Fertilizer or Compost.

10.) In cities and towns hundreds of tons of biological waste is produced everyday. This waste material is collected and changed in to manure using microbes.

11.) Micro Organisms decay different substances. In this process decaying they also produce a combustible gas. This gas is collected and used as cooking gas, for street lights and for running motor vehicles. This gas is called Bio-Gas. It is produced by methiogenic bacteria.

Harmful Micro Organisms:

Though micro organisms are helping the mankind in many areas some micro organisms cause harm. They spoil food materials reduce the crop yield, cause diseases in plants, animals and human beings such microbes which cause diseases are called disease causing micro organisms. They spread from one person to another by direct contact, air, water, food, insects and animals.


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