DIABETES: Result Of Lack Of Insulin Hormone
INTRODUCTION TO DIABETES:-
Today, man is living in crowded and polluted environment. Excessive population, industrialization, increase in number of vehicles and wastes have resulted in the pollution of land, air, water and noise. People living in cities are subjected to greater rate of pollution in comparison to people living in villages. People living in cities are exposed to do very little physical work. They are living comfortable lives. All these has given rise to blood pressure, diabetes, cancer, heart disorders and many other diseases. Among all these diseases and disorders, diabetes is one such disease which slowly weakens the affected man the way wood eating moth weakens the wood.
India is a country where due to lack of knowledge, majority of the population do not know about this disease. People come to know about if after the disease has taken a dangerous form. For Indians, diabetes has become a complex condition. Mainly people residing in cities are affected by this disease but slowly it is making it's steps towards villages too. The reason that villages are getting affected by diabetes is food. Eating habits of villagers is not proper. Though diabetes is today spreading at an alarming rate, but this disease is not new. Charaka and Sushruta too had written about diabetes.
Insulin is produced by pancreas in human body. It regulates the level of glucose. Whenever deficiency in insulin production starts developing, man becomes diabetic. After the insulin was introduced, scientists felt that this disease would be totally cured. Though it was brought under control and risk was also reduced greatly, but it could not be brought under total control.
For diabetics, insulin injections and other medicines have proved to be very effective. Today's men has brought changes in diet and has become conscious about physical exercises. This has helped him to live a long life happily even after being affected by diabetes. Today for diabetics, conditions have become far better as they are availed with lots of medicines which could bring their blood glucose level under control. This led him to live a better life along with others.
MEANING OF DIABETES:-
Diabetes is a disorder which occurs in the body due to deficiency in the insulin hormone. This insulin hormone is produced by pancreas. This pancreas is situated in our body above duodenum. It's function is to produce and regulate the amount of insulin in the body. The food we eat, enters the body and gets converted into sugar or glucose. This glucose is the source of energy. Level of glucose increases in the blood and it gives a signal for the production of insulin hormone. Thus, pancreas produces insulin after it receives the signal. This insulin produced by pancreas regulates the level of glucose in the blood.
All the living beings require insulin. People get affected by diabetes because either insulin in their body is getting produced in a very little amount or almost there is no production in insulin. Without insulin there is no regulation of blood glucose level and as a result it's level keeps on increasing. If insulin production occurs in right amount, in such people with the help of insulin, glucose gets stored in the body in the form of fat. This stored fat during the times of emergency serve as energy reserve.
TYPES OF DIABETES:-
Commonly, diabetes is divided into three types. First type of diabetes is insulin-dependent. It is known as diabetes mellitus. It can occur at any age. It can also be seen among children. Commonly seen among individuals after the age of 40 who are overweight. Second type of diabetes is not dependent on insulin. It is known as diabetes insipidus. It occurs due to deficiency of vasopressin hormone. Affected people suffer from frequent urine passage. Kidneys cannot regulate the urine passage. Third type of diabetes is gestational type. It is seen only during pregnancy.
When the level of sugar or glucose increases in blood, some amount is excreted in urine too. Due to this urine of affected person becomes sweet. This is the reason that it is often seen that ants stick to the urine of affected people after it has been dried up. Thus one can easily come to conclusion that individual who urinated is diabetes affected. When glucose starts excreting in urine it means amount of glucose has increased in blood.
Sometimes diabetes becomes dangerous. It neither gets controlled with insulin injections nor with the intake of medicines. This condition is called as acidosis. This condition is fatal. Diabetes is a peculiar type of disease and affected person does not come to know of himself being affected by it for a very long time. Thus, it's essential for all the individuals to check their blood glucose level for at least once in 6 months after the age of 40.
CAUSES OF DIABETES:-
Following are the causes responsible for diabetes to occur:-
- Less physical work,
- Excess oil consumption,
- Emotional stress,
- Attack of virus,
- Certain body hormones,
- Certain medicines,
- Some diseases,
- Caste, country and environment,
- Smoking and alcohol,
- Malnutrition during pregnancy,
- Miscellaneous factors
Hereditary:- It is often seen that diabetes is a hereditary condition. Most of the people suffer from diabetes as this disease runs in their family. This disease can come from mother-father, maternal or paternal grand parents. If mother and father both are affected by this disease, it is for sure that all their children will get affected at some age or the other. If among mother and father, one of them is affected, 50% of children get affected by it.
Less physical work:- People who are lazy and do not do much physical work are more prone to get affected by diabetes when compared to individuals often doing hard physical labor. Physical works, exercises, yoga, games etc..... help keeping an individual fit. Body functions properly when subjected to physical exercises. Risk of diabetes too decreases in such individuals. When person rests more and does little physical work becomes obese and such individuals are at higher risk of diabetes. By getting involved in physical work, body utilizes maximum glucose present in the blood. As a result, work load of pancreas decreases.
Excess consumption of oil:- Food is the best friend of man as well as the biggest enemy. Healthy diet rich in protein and composed of fruits and vegetables makes a man live longer and free of diseases. Unhealthy food, especially oil fried is not good. Food rich in fat helps to increase fat deposits in body especially on stomach, thighs, butts etc..... Experiments have showed that consuming oily foods increase the risk of diabetes. Patients suffering from diabetes if consume oil free diet, it decreases their blood sugar level. By consuming fat free food, the stored fat in the body gets utilized well. The number of diabetic patients have increased in the number with the increased intake of sugar and processed foods. Deficiency of vitamin B6 also gives rise to diabetes because its deficiency affects working of pancreas. It is seen that if diabetics follow a diet consisting of less amount of oil and more fiber followed with regular exercise can help attain normal level of blood glucose in a few days.
Emotional stress:- It is not only cause of one disease in fact of almost all the diseases. Emotions like tension, anger, jealousy increases the pressure within the blood vessels and nerves. Stress also leads to diabetes. Stress leads to laziness, tiredness, weakness etc..... which also increases the risk of diabetes. Thus, it is essential for man to be stress free, tension free and free of jealousy. Man should live a life with complete peace of mind. He should live happily and this will help in the production of certain chemicals in the body which increases the metabolic process leading to breakdown of carbohydrates. This increases immunity and beauty of a person.
Obesity:- Being obese prove to be our biggest enemy. It not only leads to diabetes, but also to high blood pressure, heart diseases etc..... It is seen that fat individuals live less when compared to thin individuals. Main reason of obesity is conversion of calorie into fat. To digest excessive fat and carbohydrate, more amount of insulin is necessary. Thus, pancreas has to produce more insulin. This increases pressure on pancreas which gradually decreases its efficiency to work. Incidence of diabetes increases in obese individuals and decreases in thin individuals. If in a family even if there is no history of diabetes but if a person becomes obese, he is sure to become diabetic soon. 80% of diabetic individuals are obese.
Attack of virus:- Rhino virus is responsible for causing diabetes. This virus produces bad effects on pancreas. To fight against this virus antibodies so produced impart bad effects on pancreas. As a result, insulin production decreases and person becomes diabetic.
Certain body hormones:- Pituitary, thyroid, adrenal glands if are affected by any disorder, then the hormones resulting from these glands also produces ill effects on pancreas which increases the risk of diabetes.
Certain medicines:- Certain medicines like steroids, cortisone, contraceptives, blood pressure medicines when used for a longer duration increases risk of diabetes. Certain medicines used for heart diseases can also give rise to diabetes.
Certain diseases:- There are certain diseases which increases the risk of diabetes. Swelling of pancreas, diseases of heart can increase its incidence.
Caste, country and environment:- People belonging to certain castes comparatively include more carbohydrates in their diet and drink more alcohol. Thus, they are more prone for diabetes. In such castes, diabetic patients are more in number. Villagers are less prone to diabetes when compared to people living in cities. Diabetes patients are also seen more in those countries where environment pollution is more.
Smoking and alcohol:- Smoking and alcohol consumption are closely related with diabetes. People who smoke more and one who are alcoholics are at greater risk for becoming diabetics when compared to people who do not smoke or consume alcohol.
Malnutrition during pregnancy:- It is usually seen that in pregnant women diabetes occur but after pregnancy this disorder gets corrected. Due to malnutrition during pregnancy diabetes occur. Fetus in womb develops immunity against insulin. Even after birth same condition do exists. Child even after growing up do not consume carbohydrates and sugar in adequate amounts. Thus, malnutrition of mother during her pregnancy can make her child diabetic. Thus, pregnant ladies have to protect themselves from malnutrition. They have to consume adequate amounts of sprouts, fresh green leafy vegetables, fruits, milk and other nutritious foods. By taking such measures, child can be prevented from diabetes.
Age:- Diabetes is such type of disorder which can occur at any age and at any time. But, usually it occurs after the age of 40. Even after the age of 60-70 this disorder is seen to form. In general, diabetes is a disease of old age. Even it is seen in new-born children.
Occupation:- Diabetes is directly related to occupation. Individuals who constantly sit and work like shop keepers, teachers, lawyers, executives and those who do less physical work are at greater risk of diabetes. In them metabolism of glucose cannot be kept under control. Laborers, sports persons, farmers and others are at low risk of diabetes.
Sex:- Diabetes does not differentiate between men and women, young or old, white or black races. All are at equal risks. But, it is usually seen that men are more prone to become diabetics in young age and women in old age. In comparison, men are more diabetics when compared to women.
Miscellaneous factors:- Women who often undergo abortion can become diabetic soon. Individuals with high blood pressure can get affected with diabetes insipidus.
SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES:-
Diabetes weakens a person and decreases his immunity against other diseases. This is the reason that it is called as 'silent killer'. Peculiar thing about this disease is that person even after been affected with it for a long duration remains unaware about it. Symptoms of diabetes are as follows.
- Frequent urination,
- Excessive thirst,
- Excess thirst,
- Excess hunger,
- Dryness of mouth,
- Decrease in weight,
- Weakness and tiredness,
- Impaired wound healing,
- Itching around private areas,
- Diseases of skin and gums,
- Weak eye sight,
- Impairment in sexual power,
- Ants sticking to urine,
Frequent urination:- Diabetics suffer from frequent urination. Through urine, excess of glucose present in body is thrown out. Excess water and glucose when thrown out of body make a person thirsty. Person becomes weak due to excess removal of water and sugar from the body. Glow from the face almost disappears. Healthy individuals rarely wakes up in night for urination, but diabetic individuals wakes up many times for urinating.
Excessive thirst:- Due to diabetes, person suffers from excessive thirst. This is because he urinates frequently. Thus his mouth often dries up. He faces this even during night time. Frequent need to drink water is also a symptom of this disease.
Excessive hunger:- Patients suffering from diabetes eat more as they often experience hunger. Even after excess of food intake, they suffer from weakness. This is because due to the deficiency of insulin, glucose cannot enter the tissues.
Dryness of mouth:- It is often seen that in diabetes, tongue and palate dries up easily. Gradually tongue become hard and rough. Drying up of tongue and throat is a symptom showing person is suffering from diabetes.
Decrease in weight:- Person suffering from diabetes experiences weight loss. Reason for this is glucose is not supplied to each and every part of the body. At the same time he also experiences frequent urination. This makes him physically weak. Fat present in the body is utilized and person becomes weak and experiences weight loss.
Weakness and tiredness:- Sugar or glucose consumed by a diabetic individual do not reach tissues of different body organs. Thus brain, muscles remain deficient of energy. Muscles often become tired easily and body becomes weak. Thus, diabetics experience weakness and tiredness.
Impaired wound healing:- A small cut or injury can result in wound formation in diabetes. This wound does not heal up rapidly. Wound rich in glucose is subjected to infection. This is the reason of impaired wound healing in diabetics.
Itching around private parts:- Diabetic women often suffer from itching around private parts. Due to excess of glucose in blood, itching occurs.
Diseases of skin and gums:- Due to increase in the level of glucose in blood, skin and gum diseases are commonly seen in diabetes. This is because microbes easily attack during such conditions. Even common cold, cough also occur commonly to diabetic individuals.
Weak eye sight:- Diabetics have very weak eye sight. Blood vessels of eyes are affected mainly. There is blurring of vision. Blurred images are formed in eye lens. They are at high risks of developing cataract.
Impairment in sexual power:- Diabetes decreases sexual power and also decreases the sexual drive of an individual.
Ants sticking to urine:- In diabetes, glucose is thrown out from body through urine. In toilets, in the place of urination after the urine dries up one can see ants sticking to that urine. This indicates that the person is suffering from diabetes.
Gangrene:- Some diabetes patients suffer from gangrene too. Once gangrene formed, it's healing almost seems impossible. There even arises situations where patients fingers or toe of limb or the whole of the limb need to be excised in certain cases. This occurs due to an injury in the foot. This injury does not heal up and if care is not taken will involve a greater area of limb and there by weakens it. This wound never heal up and condition arises where the limb need to be cut to save patient's life.
Dizziness:- In case of diabetes, tissues are not well fed and the protein gets depleted along with fat in the body. Ketone bodies increases in the blood. Acidity increases due to increase in the ketone bodies in the body. Thus, person experiences dizziness.
By all these symptoms person can identify that he may be suffering from diabetes but to come to a conclusion and confirm the presence of diabetes, blood tests are necessary. Diabetes is a disease in which person even after being affected by it is unknown about its presence. Thus, after the age of 40 one must go for blood tests in every 6 months.
DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETES:-
Diabetes cannot be known for a longer duration by its symptoms. Usually one comes to know that they are suffering from diabetes only when doctors ask them to go for blood or urine tests. Before taking a life insurance policy they are asked for such tests or when they go for blood or urine tests before a surgery at that time during diagnosis they accidentally come to know that they are suffering from diabetes. Today in this polluted and crowded world it has become essential that at least twice in a year each and every one should go for urine and blood tests. Through urine and blood tests diagnosis of diabetes is done in following ways.
By the test of glucose in blood it can be diagnosed that level of sugar is whether low, high or normal and whether ketone bodies are present in blood. Blood tests are done by 2 ways:-
- Empty stomach diagnosis of blood sugar.
- Blood tests after breakfast or consumption of glucose.
Blood test on empty stomach:-
This test is done on empty stomach. Blood is withdrawn and sent for diagnosis of glucose level in it. This test enables to know whether the glucose level within the blood is higher than the normal amount or no. Blood test done on empty stomach should have sugar level of 65-100 mg/liter. If sugar level shows 120mg/liter or above, even after 2 to3 times of such tests done then the diagnosis is that the person is suffering from diabetes. For this test, person should not consume anything for 13 hours before the test.
Blood tests done after breakfast:-
After blood test is done on empty stomach, person is asked to eat good heavy breakfast which includes bread, butter, sugar incorporated milk or tea. After 2 hours blood sample is taken from person and sent for diagnosis. Sugar level in blood should be 100-120mg/liter. Instead of breakfast, person can be given 75-100gm of glucose mixed in a glass of water and after 2 hours blood sample is collected for diagnosis. If blood glucose level is above 180mg/liter then that person is suffering from diabetes.
In both these tests, done before and after breakfast, needle is used to prick finger and a small amount of blood is withdrawn from the person. Some pathologists also take blood sample from blood vessels.
Glucose Tolerance Test:-
This test is a perfect diagnosis for diabetes and is done in cases of such individuals in whom doctors doubt that they are suffering from diabetes. This test requires certain prior arrangements to me made. Three days before test, person is asked to consume carbohydrate rich diet. During this duration person should not take nicotinic acid, vitamin C, aspirin, contraceptives. For test, person should go on empty stomach.
Doctor takes samples of blood and urine. Person is then given 75-100gms of glucose mixed in water along with 1-2 drops of lemon mixed in it. After every half an hour 5-6 times blood and urine samples are collected from the patient and checked for sugar level. In this test following diagnosis is obtained which is considered to be normal.
Blood glucose level on empty stomach- 105 to 120mg/liter
Blood glucose level after 2 hours of glucose intake- 120 to 150mg/liter.
After 1 hour, glucose level in blood reaches highest level i.e., 160mg/liter. This test helps to diagnose whether a person is suffering from diabetes or no.
For diabetes, level of sugar can be diagnosed in urine by 2 tests. These are:-
- Benedict's Test and
- Glucose Oxidase Test
Apart from diagnosis of diabetes certain other tests are also essential. Diabetes is diagnosed to a greater extent by knowing the level of sugar in blood and urine but even it's essential to test the presence of acetone, albumin etc..... in urine. Presence of acetone in blood indicates acidic blood and patient can become dizzy at any time. Presence of albumin indicates the presence of diabetes.
TREATMENT OF DIABETES:-
For the treatment of diabetes many measures are been taken. The most effective method is by intake of medicines. Three types of medicines are used. They are oral medicines, insulin and others. These medicines should be taken under prescription.
It's been used since long time by diabetic patients. It came into existence in 1956. These medicines decrease the level of sugar in blood. More than half of the people suffering from diabetes take these medicines. These medicines are of two types. They are sulphonyl groups and buaganides.
Side effects of these medicines are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice. These medicines are particularly useful during the onset of diabetes in patients. Pregnant women should not take these medicines.
Diabetes occur in body due to the deficiency of insulin. Thus, insulin proves to be effective in treatment of diabetes. It was invented in 1921. It can be taken in following ways:-
- Nasal sprays,
- Injections of insulin,
- Insulin sprays and
- Insulin pen
Nasal sprays:- In this procedure, insulin is sprayed in nose. It gets absorbed by mucus and glucose gets regulated in the body.
Insulin injection:- When the level of glucose rises in blood, insulin injections are given.
Insulin pump:- Surgery is done and pump is fitted in body. With the help of this pump insulin is sent in the body. This pump by itself keeps sending insulin in the blood.
Insulin pen:- To control diabetes, this pen was invented. In this pen instead of ink, insulin is filled. In place on nib there is a small pricking needle. This needle is pricked in the body and insulin can be sent inside whenever required.
To regulate the level of insulin is a difficult task. This is better accomplished by trained doctors. For some patients, 10 to 12 units of insulin is sufficient where as for others 100 units or even more amount is required. Usually, normal dose is 30-40 units. After the intake of insulin, immediate exercising, running, jumping, playing should be avoided. Intake of insulin is not a treatment for diabetes but keeps diabetics alive. If a person starts taking insulin then for whole life he needs to take it. Thus, as far as possible he should not allow circumstances to arrive in which he needs to get addicted to insulin. It is better that person controls his diabetes through yoga, food and exercises. It is seen that if weight of diabetics increases or intake of food increases or else if they get attacked by microbes then the need for insulin also increases. If weight of diabetics decreases, intake of food decreases then the need for insulin also decreases.
How to take insulin injections?
In the beginning, patients of diabetes should take injections of insulin from their doctors. They, then themselves should learn to take injections. Procedure is quite easy.
Patient has to take 2 c.c. syringe. Each c.c. is divided into 1/10. He should also have spirit and cotton. Before taking injections, syringe should be boiled in water. Bottle of insulin should be rubbed between hands. Cotton should be filled with spirit and it is then rubbed on the lid of insulin bottle. Syringe should be removed from boiling water. Needle has to be fixed on syringe. From insulin bottle, insulin has to be filled in syringe. Needle is then pierced on body part. Units of insulin as prescribed by doctor after being taken inside the body, needle is removed out. After this the part of the body where needle was inserted has to be rubbed with cotton dipped in spirit.
Now a days, disposable syringes are available which are thrown after the usage. These syringes need not be boiled in water. Now a days pumps are also available in which after insulin is filled pressure of air gets created. Syringe is kept facing the body and button is pressed. This will lead the insulin to pierce the skin and enter in the body.
Patients taking insulin injections can suffer from its allergy. Red patches may appear on their skin. In women body the places where insulin injections were pierced can get affected by fat deposits. Thus, insulin has to be taken only in critical conditions.
There are other medicines too available for diabetes known as generic medicines. These can prove to be dangerous. Level of blood glucose can experience sudden fall. While taking such medicines, sugar intake in the blood should be done carefully. These medicines has to be taken under the prescription of doctors.
Critical conditions for diabetic patients:-
If level of blood glucose decreases suddenly patient will sweat profusely, will become angry, will turn pale and may fall unconscious. In such conditions, sugar, sweet juice, toffy, fruit juice, cold drink etc..... should be given to the patient. Within 10-15 minutes his condition gets improved. If level of glucose increases in body then patient will experience excessive thirst, excess urination and will breath heavily. He should immediately be taken to doctor.
COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES:-
Diabetes causes many dangers in the body with the onset of diabetes itself. It gives rise to many complications. If certain measures are not taken this disease would prove to be dangerous. Following complications can result from diabetes.
Unconsciousness due to diabetes:-
In case of diabetes, when the level of sugar rises in blood, acetone too increases. This increases carbon-dioxide and decreases oxygen in blood. As a result, patient becomes breathless. He suffocates and may fall unconscious. In this condition patient urinates frequently and experiences nausea and vomiting. This condition produces bad effects on brain. Falling unconscious can be very dangerous. Immediate action should be taken to treat it. Unconscious patient should be immediately taken to the hospital so that he could be immediately given some treatment.
To save diabetes patients from facing such unconsciousness, care should be taken that blood glucose level in their body does not rises. They should be given diet which is less in sugar. They should do regular exercises and should go for regular walk. Such patients should keep with themselves all their personal information written in paper or diary. Paper should contain their name, address, medicines they take etc..... If a patient suddenly falls unconscious he can be taken to his home on basis of this information.
Delayed wound healing:-
In patients suffering from diabetes, wound formed does not heal quickly due to increased level of blood glucose. Sometimes, wound condition deteriorates. Diabetics should take care that they accidentally do not injure themselves. Blisters or wound formed should be healed quickly by controlling the blood sugar level in the body.
It's often seen that any kind of injury or wound formed in foot of diabetes do not heal or heal very slowly and the wound in foot spreads to the upper part of foot. Due to excessive increase in blood sugar, fingers of limbs too get necrosed or degenerated. This condition is quite dangerous.
Diabetes patients suffer from skin diseases. In this condition, sugar and acetone level increases. Thus, in these patients sweats smell peculiarly due to the sweetness of glucose and smell of acetone. Microbes get attracted to the smell and sweetness and make skin diseased. Thus, diabetics suffer from skin diseases. They often experience itching. In men and women around their private areas, they experience itching and blisters as these areas get invaded by microbes. The reason is the improper cleaning of their private parts. After urination if private areas are not cleaned with clean water then drops of urine rich in glucose in contact with skin around private areas attracts millions of microbes for their invasion. Also, due to diabetes, flexibility of body decreases. Keratin gets settled in layers of skin of hands, legs and face. Thus, color turns yellowish. Glow of face decreases and person becomes pale.
In diabetic patients, risk of suffering from gangrene is more when compared to others. In case of gangrene, affected part of the body becomes lifeless and it needs to be excised surgically. Any minor injury in case of diabetic patients may take a form of gangrene. Usually gangrene develops in fingers and toe of feet. Before invention of insulin, maximum diabetes patients would die from gangrene. But the percentage has lowered due to the introduction of insulin and antibiotic medications in the field of medicine. Thus, diabetic patients should especially take care of their hands and limbs.
Diabetes and heart disease:-
Due to imbalance in metabolism of carbohydrates and fat in the body of diabetic patients there is increase in certain products which settle in blood. These make blood vessels narrow. Thus, blood reaching heart decreases in amount due to the constriction of blood vessels. This gives rise to heart diseases. They may suffer from coronary heart disease or angina pectoris. Due to the increase in triglycerides and cholesterol in blood the risk of heart diseases increases.
High blood pressure and constricted blood vessels:-
In diabetic patients blood vessels become constricted. Thus, they even suffer from blood pressure. This increases their risk of brain hemorrhage.
Diabetes and pregnancy:-
For diabetic women, protection of the fetus within their womb is a major problem. Increase and decrease of sugar level in blood imparts ill effects on the fetus. Pregnant women should take special care of their developing fetus.
Decrease in immune power:-
In diabetes the immunity to fight against diseases decreases. Thus, they cannot face the infections. Microbes can easily make an attack in such individuals and they become prone to various diseases.
Ill-effects of diabetes on eyes:-
Diabetes is a dangerous condition for eyes. It especially affects retina. It can make a person blind. Blood vessels of eyes can dilate in this disease. Lots of abnormalities develop in retina. Blood gets collected in blood vessels. Dilation of blood vessels can result in impairment of eye sight or total blindness. Thus, level of blood glucose should be kept in normal limits to avoid such eye related disorders.
Diabetes and joint pains:-
In diabetic patients, joint disorders is quite common. Reason behind it is flexibility of joints decreases. Thus, they often experience joint pains.
Scientific studies have shown that in diabetes immunity against AIDS decreases. Diabetic patients can easily become affected by HIV.
Old age and diabetes:-
Studies have shown that in diabetic patients due to cross linking their longevity gets decreased. Along with this their immunity to fight against diseases too decreases. Thus, patients affected by diabetes soon turn old. It is also seen that due to cross linking eye sight gets decreased. Diseases of lungs, kidneys and heart develops. Metabolic activity gets impaired. Blood vessels stiffens. Flexibility of body is lost. As a result, person dies soon. Diabetic patient gets affected by cataract. Sometimes pregnant women also experience abortion. Diabetic patients often suffer from diseases of respiratory system. They often get affected by tuberculosis of lungs. They also often suffer from digestive system disorder. Vomiting and diarrhea are the usual complaints.
Decrease in sexual drive:-
Studies have shown that diabetes affected people have low sexual drive. This disease greatly affects sex life of an individual. Women affected by diabetes develop low sexual desire and diabetes affected men develop sexual impairment.
CONTROL OF DIABETES THROUGH FOOD:-
Controlling diabetes through food is a very effective method. By this we need not experience side effects of medicines and diabetes also gets controlled. Controlling diabetes through food does not leave a room for other diseases to occur.
Food that controls diabetes:-
Food plays an important role to control diabetes. Diabetic patients should follow a diet which does not increases their weight. This diet should have less amount of carbohydrates and fat. Both of these constituents increases body weight.
Diet low in carbohydrates and fat comprises of leafy and other vegetables. Leafy vegetables include spinach, cauliflower, radish, coriander, mint leaves etc..... Other vegetables like cauliflower, egg plant, beetle gourd, tomato, onion, cucumber, mushrooms, green chilly etc..... are also very beneficial. All these vegetables contain 3-5% carbohydrates and very low amount of fat. These vegetables are very useful for diabetics. They should consume less carbohydrates and low fat diet. This helps to control diabetes to a greater extent. Right from ancient times, diabetes is controlled by following strict diet.
Fruits for diabetic patients:-
Diabetics should eat tomatoes, apple, gooseberry, lemon, oranges etc..... Fruits which contain more amount of sweetness should be consumed less by diabetics.
Daily food requirement:-
Diabetic patients diet should consists of carbohydrates, proteins, fat, vitamins and fiber. Carbohydrates is mainly contained in grains and sugar. Carbohydrates should provide 900-1000 calories. Protein helps in development of body. Milk, pulses, meat, fish, eggs are all sources of protein. Fat is mainly obtained from ghee, oil, butter etc..... Fat is of two types. Saturated and unsaturated fat. Saturated fat is harmful to the body. By its consumption blood vessels become constricted. Diabetic patients should consume unsaturated fat. They should not consume ghee, butter, dalda, coconut oil in large amount. They should consume ground nut oil, soya bean oil, sunflower oil and other refined oils. Body requires lots of vitamins and minerals. Daily vitamin requirement of the body can be fulfilled by consuming leafy vegetables, fruits, sprouts, milk etc..... Vitamin A is obtained from milk, spinach, carrot, tomato etc.... It is essential for eyes. Vitamin B is obtained from milk and other fruits. It help in the digestion of the food. Vitamin D is obtained from sun. Vitamin C is obtained from citrus fruits like gooseberry, lemon, oranges etc..... By intake of vitamin C in diet, production of insulin in body increases. Diabetics should regularly consume vitamin C rich diet. With its intake, externally given insulin dosage is also reduced greatly. Diabetics should consume more amount of green leafy vegetables and less sweetened fruits. At the same time, fiber is essential to the body. Fiber is obtained from fruits and vegetables. It helps in cleansing of digestive system.
How to sweeten food stuffs?
Diabetics often are tempted to eat sweets but consuming sweets can be dangerous to them. They can sweeten the foods by adding saccharine, fructose, sargitol etc...... Saccharine is the best product to sweeten the food stuff.
Some important points regarding food and diet:-
Food plays an important role to control diabetes. Diabetic patients should follow a strict diet. Regarding food, following points are very important:-
- Following diet does not mean eating less. It means eating foods that give right nutrition at right time and in right amount. This keeps the weight of patient under control. Food should be such that it should not give rise to any heart related diseases. Ideal diet is one that checks the weight of patient. It keeps balance between health and nutrition in the body.
- Diet should contain carbohydrates, proteins and fat as these are the sources of energy. Food should also contain vitamins and minerals as they help in the defense of body. They help to fight against diseases. Patients shouldn't consume diet rich in calories.
- Insulin produced in body stores carbohydrates, proteins and fat in the form of reserves. These are utilized only during needs. With the help of insulin, maximum carbohydrates derived from consumed food gets accumulated in liver. In liver glucose is produced in between meals so that level of glucose does not decrease below a certain level. Main task of insulin is to avoid liver from producing excess of glucose. When the level of glucose in blood is not adequate our brain does not work properly. If level of glucose increases in body, it is due to deficiency of insulin. Then the reserved carbohydrates in the body starts getting used. This produces ketone bodies in body. This can make a diabetic patient to become unconscious.
- Insulin production increases when weight of patient is kept under control.
- Half kg of fat within our body contains 3,500 calories. If we keep control on our diet then every week 500 calories can be reduced from body. This is very beneficial to diabetics.
- According to studies, diabetics should consume more amount of fiber in their diet. Fiber rich products clean their digestive system and increases its work efficiency. Fiber rich products accumulate water and thus excretion remains smooth. Fresh fruits, pulses, fresh vegetables contain fiber in large amount. Fiber helps the correct use of insulin in body. Thus, diabetics should consume more amount of fiber rich vegetables and fruits. Foods which contain more fiber is cornflakes, green peas, boiled potato, carrot, lady finger, tomato, various fruits etc.....
- Diabetic patients who need to take insulin and patients who live on medicines other than that of diabetes should follow different diets. Patients dependent on insulin should follow a diet which provides them calories in required amount. Patients who are dependent on other medicines can change their calorie intake.
- Diabetic patients can consume calorie free soft drinks, coffee etc..... They can drink lots of unsweetened or salted lemon juice. They should consume sugar in negligible amount.
- Diabetic patients should follow a diet as prescribed by physician.
- They should not consume diet which is high in calories. 1,500 calorie diet is sufficient for them.
Diabetic Patients: What to eat and what not to eat.
Foods not to be eaten:-
- Sugar, sweets, ice-creams, chocolate, candy
- Vegetables containing starch. Example:- Potatoes
- All purpose flour, rice
- Milk rich in cream, milk products like paneer, cream, cheese, butter
- Ghee, food prepared in ghee
- Excessive sweet fruits like banana, grapes, litchi, mango
- Excess of meat, hem, liver, kidney etc.....
- Alcohol and beer
Foods to be eaten:-
- Sweets prepared with help of saccharine
- Green vegetables containing fiber- jack fruits, spinach, French beans, egg plant, lady finger, cauliflower, cabbage, carrot, soya bean etc.....
- Low fat or skimmed milk, curd and paneer made out of skimmed milk
- Refined oil
- Oranges, watermelon, apple etc.....
- Egg white
- Brandy in very little amount.
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