Introduction:

building

Many people build buildings to stay and some make professionally with business mind. In second case they may be promoter or constructor or engineers. So construction of building involved various types of structures also. Buildings may be multi-storied or single storied, it needs some techniques.

Types of construction- It varies on place where the building will be constructed. Generally in villages buildings are made to stay, but in town many buildings are constructed in various purposes. These may be commercial buildings, warehouses or some factories also. Materials are also used on the basis of types of buildings. But Iron rods, cement, sand, cheeps and wood are common.

It is also an industry- Building construction is also an industry with many individuals and many organizations also. At first some architect or engineers do a drawing with some specifications as per requirement of users. Then it is send to get permission. After that many workers started to build and some masons, plumbers, electricians are involved with this work. Then interior designers are involved to give it the final shape. So many people are involved and earn from this work.

Now many individuals and organizations do this work under an expert observer or engineer. They act as an agent of owner.

Elements of buildings

Following are the main elements of a building or any constructions-

1 Foundation- It supports the main building or construction and provides strength. So foundation should be strengthen as any construction is made for a long run. Many times some extension is made after few years or in next generation, so if it is done strengthen only then any extension is possible.

2. Structure- It carries all the loads and helps to hold with foundation. Structure is made of steel and concrete. It carries the load of wall and some time some extension is done later.

3. Exterior walls- It may or may not support the primary structure but necessary to build. Previously walls carried the load but now engineers changed the process and the main structure with foundation carries the load. Exterior walls are related with safety also. When some internal extension is done then it carries the load also.

4. Interior walls- It is also may or may not be carry load but it helps to divide the internal space as per owners’ requirements. In other hand in many building some racks are made on this internal wall. Some appliances like air conditioners are fitted on this, so internal wall should be strengthen also.

5. Control and environmental system- It helps to remove heat or ventilating air, lighting etc. Ventilating is an important matter in any construction. It helps the rooms airy and healthy to persons. Passing sunlight makes it warm and helps to be germ free.

6. Elevators, escalators and stair ways to go up and down in various stairs. In multi storied building it is necessary, specially to old aged people. In many business building it is common and even in multi storied building lift system is constructed.

7. Power and sanitary system- Electricity is said as power and in this present era we can not run without this power. Under ground sanitary system is followed to avoid some pollution.

Something about load

The loads of a building may be classified into two categories- dead or live load.

Dead load means the total weight of buildings itself. It always acts directly downward and remains constant.

Live load means wind pressure, seismic force and also vibration due to various machines and movable furniture and stored goods. It also varies according to weather and temperature. So load is an important factor as it protects the building and prevent from any distortion or unwanted motion.

Foundation- Previously said it is a main factor of a building but it depends upon on the nature of soil and some geological conditions. We know some areas are flooded area and some areas have a history or earth quake. So the depth and solidity depends upon the nature. So soil and geological analysis are must to determine the depth of foundation in any construction. Some common types of foundations are shallow and deep type foundation. In this system foundation is started from several feet below the bottom of building.

Where the surface soil conditions are poor there piles are used, which are made of concrete, timber and steel. These piles are made up to the solid layer of soil.

Ground water level: - It plays an important role in constructing buildings. Sometime ground water flow disturbs the foundation. So it is necessary to know about the ground water level before doing the plan of construction.

Steel skeleton frames are used in most multi storied buildings. It takes maximum support. These types of frames consist of vertical columns and horizontal girders or beams. Diagonal bracing are also used to maintain balance and support also.

Roofing, framing, design depends on the size of the building to be constructed and all materials also depends on it. Taller and multi-storied building usually requires more strength support system. It also has less flexibility for roofing choices. It is simple that low buildings have more varieties of shapes than taller building. Each Structural material has a particular strength to weight ratio and cost and durability also.

Water supply and disposal system- Every building, may be single storied or multi-storied, need water supply in various purposes like drinking, washing, cooking etc. Then proper disposal system is also necessary to drain the used or unused materials.

Electricity-Now we cannot think anything without it. It is most essential and usable in our daily life. So this should be also provided properly. In multi-storied it is arranged by the building owner or the organization under whom we are taking the building, but in case of individual it is arranged individually by applying to proper authority.

Conclusion- Sweet home is a dream to many and to most middle class families it is happened once. Before planning follow the all rules and regulations to build and maintain all necessities. It is a long term project. Any lack or gap may be dangerous step for future.

Photo from wikipedia. 


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