The process of birth

The birth process is a great physical ordeal to the human infant because he is forcibly expelled from the intrauterine cavity. Further external force is often applied to facilitate the process of birth ( Good enough). Though this ordeal produces in the new born infant a physical and mental condition similar to the experience of adult's who had just undergone a major operation. This idea of a slosh produced by birth is not scientifically established but could be a possible hypothesis. There is however no doubt that the birth process involves potential clangers to the foetus. It may cause injury to brain particularly when instruments are used to bring about with. Even minor head injuries may have for reaching effect on later psychological development. Lack of motor co- ordination and paralysis may result from birth injuries which become apparent only after three to four years. According to one investigation 5- 10 % of cases of feeble mindedness are caused by birth injuries since the new born has to make major adjustments to survive in the new environment. Some thinkers have said that the intrauterine life is the ideal one. They have further described a strong desire on the part of all human beings to return to one security of the mother's womb. Psychological research tends to throw some doubts on this. As pregnancy continues one amount of oxygen supply to one developing foetus becomes gradually less adequately for its need, so that ultimately foetus has to die of asphyxiation. There is evidence that ammonia prior to and at birth may result in permanent impairment is leading ability. There is also permanent damage to the neuro- muscular system.

 1. Physical appearance  without experience or realistic.

 2. Preparations the new mother is likely to be disappointed by the appearance of her infant. Its skin lies in loose fold over an emaciated skeleton and the skin. Fine hair may lower part of the body. The hair growth and head may vary from complete baldness to plenty of hair. The new born eyes are approximately half their adult size, while the body as a whole is 11/20th of its adult size.


The average new born infant weigh about 7.5 Lt's (the bone weight of babies in India ). The male child weigh 4.1 more in India than the female. It should be noted that infants differ from one another in their body weight at birth. Some weigh as less as 1lt and some as much as 15 lts. Certain extremes weights are very rare. The average weight of infant varies from one human race to another, from nation to nation. During the neo- natal period the infant loses weight for a few days, but regains rapidly. The loss of weight is perhaps due to the adjustments necessary for the effective functioning of the new born's digestive system and  to the temporary lack of -20 ( 20 inches) in length. Male children slightly varies from 15" to 20". If we compare the linear dimension of the new born with that of the adult we have the following.


1. The infants head is 1/2 the length of the adult head.

2. The infants trunk is 1/3 the length of adult trunk.

3. The infants arm are 1/4 the the length of the adult arm.

4. The infants legs are 1/5 the length of the adult leg.


About the skeletal and muscular growth

The bones of the new born are cartilaginous and pliable. This pliability effectively prevents fracture during the birth process. The growth and direction of the new born's body therefore altered by sustained pressure. Fact of women in China during the early development. Also the necks of women in certain primitive groups are elongated by the use of metallic rings applied during the growth period.


The skull of new born consists of several bones that do not comprise a rigid cranious. These are 6 soft spots called 'Frontancts' on the head and they are the membranes that connect the more ossified areas of the skull. These frontal is are filled with ossified tissues. By about 2 years they gradually disappear earlier in females skeletal growth is more accurate then male skeletal growth. The anterior fontanel just above the forehead is often a source of worry to the in experienced mothers. Some caution is necessary at this stage, but other wise this apprehension is groundless. This softens of the skull makes birth easier, because bones of the skull can be moulded during delivery. The infants pliable cranium may also be temporarily in some favoured portions as on its back. This may result in flattening of the infants head temporary malfunction. The skull eventually regains the normal shape when the infants sleep in different positions.

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