Bauhaus: The Bauhaus Dessau, Bauhaus Berlin, The hostility of the Nazis and Education
The Bauhaus Dessau
Bauhaus building in Dessau
After the dissolution of the Bauhaus in Weimar, several cities in Germany offer to host the Bauhaus. The choosing of the Bauhaus masters Dessau. One reason for the choice of the industrial city of Dessau is the lack of housing: Gropius advocating the industrialization of the construction is also entrusted with the creation of a city in Dessau-Torten
Classes resume at Dessau in March 1925. All teachers except Gerhard Marcks moved to Dessau, while some young masters such as Herbert Bayer and Marcel Breuer are appointed workshop leaders. Gropius adapt the curriculum of the Bauhaus to contribute to the development of a modern habitat "of the appliance as simple housing track" It reduces the number of workshop and six Bauhaus GmbH founded to commercialize products and transform the Bauhaus institutional economically viable
Homes of the Bauhaus Dessau
The building of the Bauhaus takes place during the years 1925 and 1926 Nearby Gropius built the houses of the masters appointed by the city of Dessau to build a set of houses: the city of Dessau-Torten. All the amenities of the building (painting, furniture, signage ...) are made by the various workshops of the Bauhaus. 4 and December 5, 1926, the building is inaugurated. More than 1000 invited to attend a feast at which are organized exhibitions, musical and theatrical performances.
In April 1927 and for the first time in its history, the Bauhaus opens a department of architecture in the direction of Hannes Meyer. The painter Georg Muche left the Bauhaus and was replaced by Gunta Stölzl at the head of the weaving.
Beginning in 1928 Gropius announced his resignation from the leadership of the Bauhaus to focus more on architecture. It Hannes Meyer, who succeeded him on the proposal of Gropius. Moholy-Nagy, Bayer, and Breuer also leaving the Bauhaus. Meyer began a reform of education and organization of the Bauhaus. He asked the workshops to be more profitable to work on designs that meet the needs popular It emphasizes a scientific approach at the expense of aesthetics: the creation must be "necessary, fair and therefore as neutral as imaginable." He advocates the democratization of education Bauhaus and increases the number of students by increasing it to 200.
Hall building in Dessau with Breuer chairs and lamps Krajewski
In July 1929 metal shops, carpentry and painting wall are merged into a workshop of secondary works directed by Alfred Arndt. Photography is a department created under the direction of Walter Peterhans and architect and urban planner Ludwig Hilberseimer is recruited.
Meyer is increasingly challenged by the faculty: he criticizes his approach too social education and scientific view of creation. He is also accused of having pursued his pro-communist activities and encourage the politicization of the school. It was finally removed and replaced by the architect Mies van der Rohe Mies began to politicize the school several students who supported Meyer communists are returned. The new laws come into force in 1930 banning all political activities. The curriculum is also reviewed. The course architecture becomes more important.
Klee and the Bauhaus Stölzl leave. In November 1931 the National Socialist Party vehemently opposed the Bauhaus, won election to municipal council of Dessau.
Beginning in 1932 the interior designer Lilly Reich was hired as head of the weaving and finishing works. On August 22, 1932, a resolution asking the Nazis dissolved the Bauhaus was finally passed. The Bauhaus Dessau closes its doors on 1 October 1932.
After the closure of the Bauhaus in Dessau, the city Social Democrats in Magdeburg and Leipzig show their interest in hosting the Bauhaus. Mies had nevertheless decided before the dissolution of the Bauhaus moved to Berlin and into a private school. The school moved to Berlin in an old factory phone. On 11 April 1933 the Gestapo is conducting a search and makes the sealing of the Bauhaus. Mies negotiates its reopening as a private art school with the authorities. In recent stipulate conditions for removal of Kandinsky and Hilberseimer. On July 19 Mies and teachers pronounce the dissolution of the Bauhaus.
The hostility of the Nazis
The Bauhaus was severely criticized by the Nazis. Joseph Goebbels even declaring in 1935: "I found the Bauhaus in the most perfect expression of a degenerate art" . The Nazis blamed the communist past at the Bauhaus: Many members of Bauhaus were members of the Communist Party of Germany and this is what had contributed to the departure of Hannes Meyer Executive in 1930. After the closure of the Bauhaus in 1933, most of its members fled to the United States (including Chicago) while their works were systematically destroyed in Germany.
The Bauhaus program written in 1919 by Gropius organization provides education to students. Despite the changes and adjustments that take place during the 14-year history of the Bauhaus, the basic principles remain much the same.
Instead of regular teachers, training is given by master (Meister). Students are called apprentices (Lehrlinge) and can become companions (Gesellen) and young teachers (Jungmeister). The control board manages the affairs of the Bauhaus and the appointments of young masters.
In the schematic representation that is Gropius in 1922 (see cons), education is presented in the form of three concentric circles to reach the final stage: construction (der Bau). The first part is a basic course (Vorlehre) initially for 6 months. The second part consists of 3 years in a job shop. Until 1925 this course is twofold: education of the form (Formlehre) given by an artist, a master of form and teaching practice (Werklehre) given by a master craftsman. In the diagram cons each workshop represents a material: stone (Stein), Clay (Ton), Glass (Glas), color (Farbe), fabric (Gewebe), metal (Metall) and wood (Holz). The last step devoted to construction will be implemented later and differently.
The course aims to give basic training basic artistic students. Initially for a period of 6 months, it is extended to one year in 1923. At the beginning of the Bauhaus is Itten who is responsible. After his departure in 1923, he was replaced by Moholy-Nagy, which will itself be replaced by Albers in 1928. Meanwhile, this training is supplemented by courses such as Klee and Kandinsky.
Even if they have changed over time, the Bauhaus workshops constitute an essential part of student training. The establishment of two tutoring (master of form and master craftsman) is from 1920 to foster reconciliation between a formal art education and teaching practice At the creation of the Bauhaus workshops are: weaving, pottery workshop, the workshop of metal, carpentry and furniture, the paint shop wall, workshops in stone carving and wood, the print shop and finally the bindery This organization will continue until Meyer creates a second workshop of the work involving carpentry, painting and metal wall
The Department of Architecture, final stage of training designed by Gropius, opens in 1927 under the direction of Meyer
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