Industrial Revolution led to a new model of division of labor, creating the modern factory, a technological network whose workers do not need to be artisans and not have to possess specific knowledge. Therefore, the plant introduced a pay impersonal process based on a wage system. As a result of the financial risks assumed by economic systems that accompanied the industrial development, the factory also led to the threat of dismissal to employees.

 

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The factory system prevailed after strong resistance by the English guilds and artisans, who saw clearly the threat to their income and lifestyle.

In the manufacture of muskets, eg, dealers fought against the use of interchangeable parts and mass production of rifles. However, the factory system became a basic institution of modern technology and the work of men, women and children became just another commodity in the production process. Final assembly of a product (reaper, sewing machine) is not the work of one person but the result of an integrated and collective. This division of work in operations, which are increasingly being specified more, became the most decisive feature of work in the new industrial society, with all the hours of tedium that implies.

 

Accelerating innovation

• Increasing agricultural productivity and medical science developed, Western society came to have great faith in the positive technological change, despite its less pleasant aspects.

• Some achievements of engineering and construction of the Suez Canal, the canal of Paraná and the Eiffel Tower (1889) produced pride and amazement.

• The telegraph and railroad interconnected most big cities in the late nineteenth century, the lamp (bulb) invented by Thomas Alva Edison began to replace candles and lamps, in 30 years all industrial nations to generate electrical power lighting and other systems.

• Some inventions of the nineteenth and twentieth century, such as telephone, radio, automobile and airplane engine served not only to improve the quality of life, but also for enhancing universal respect for society in general felt about the technology.

 

• With the development of mass production with assembly line for cars and household appliances and seemingly limitless invention more machines for all types of tasks, acceptance of innovations by the most advanced countries, especially United temperature and climate became not only a fact of daily life, but a way of life itself.

• Industrial societies are rapidly transformed through increased mobility, rapid communication and a large amount of information available in the media.

 

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World War I and the Great Depression forced a readjustment of this rapid explosion of technology.

• The development of underwater weapons, battleships and chemical weapons did see more clearly the destructive face of technological change.

• In addition, the unemployment rate worldwide and the disasters caused by capitalist institutions in the 1930s suggested to some sectors more vigorous criticism on the benefits arising from technological progress.

• With World War II came the development of the weapon since then is a general threat to life on the planet: the atomic bomb.

• The major program to build the first atomic bombs during the war, the Manhattan Project was the largest technological effort and more expensive to date.

• This program not only opened an era of weapons of mass destruction, but also high-level science with large scale technology projects often funded by governments and were flying from major scientific laboratories.

• A peaceful technology of World War II, the development of computers, transistors, electronics and the trend toward miniaturization, had a greater effect on society.

• The enormous possibilities offered went fast becoming reality, this entailed the replacement of labor by automated systems and the rapid and radical change in methods of work practice.

Achievements and technological benefits

• Leaving aside the negative effects, the technology made people gain control over the nature and construct a civilized existence.

• It increased the production of material goods and services and reduced the amount of work required to produce a great number of things.

• In the advanced industrial world the machines do most work in agriculture and many industries, workers produce more goods than a century ago with fewer working hours.

• Much of the population of industrialized countries have a better life (better food, clothing, accommodation and a variety of devices for home use)

• Today, many people are living longer and healthier as a result of technology.

• In the twentieth century were insurmountable technological achievements, with a much higher rate of growth than in earlier periods.

• The invention of the automobile, radio, television and the telephone revolutionized the way of life and work of many millions.

• The two areas where most progress has been the medical technology that has provided the means to diagnose and many deadly diseases and the exploration of space, which has produced the most spectacular technological achievement of the century, for the first time men got out and return to the terrestrial biosphere.



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Effects of Technology

In recent decades, some observers have begun to warn of some results of the technology that also have destructive and harmful aspects.

From the 1970s to the 1980s, the number of these negative results have increased and their problems have reached public awareness. Observers noted, among other dangers, that automobile exhaust was polluting the atmosphere, the world's resources were being used beyond its capabilities, pesticides like DDT that threatened the food chain and that a large tailings variety of industrial resources were contaminating groundwater supplies.

In recent decades, it is argued that the environment has been so damaged by technological processes that one of the greatest challenges of modern society is the search for places to store the large amount of waste produced.

The problems caused by technology are the result of the inability to predict or assess its possible negative consequences. Will continue reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of technology while capitalizing on its results.

Proposed alternatives

The concept called appropriate technology, appropriate or intermediate is accepted as an alternative to the technological problems of the industrialized nations and what is more important as a solution to the problem of social imbalance caused by the transfer of advanced technologies from developed countries.

It is said that the overwhelming nature of modern technology and threat to certain values such as quality of life, freedom of choice, the human sense of proportion and equal justice and opportunities for individual creativity. Proponents of this view propose a value system in which people recognize that land resources are limited and that human life should be restructured around the commitment to control the growth of industry, size of cities and the use of energy. The restoration and renewal of natural resources are the main technological objectives.

Moreover, as modern society no longer lives in the industrial era of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the complex networks possible, thanks to advanced electronics will make obsolete the institutions of national governments, multinational corporations and overcrowded cities.

Technology has always been an important means of creating new human and physical environments. Only during the twentieth century it became necessary to ask whether the technology will destroy all or part of civilization created by mankind.

 

Future Prospects of technology

Throughout the twentieth century, the technology spread from Europe and the United States other major nations such as Japan and the former Soviet Union, but in no case did all countries in the world. Many of the countries of so-called developing have never experienced the system of manufacture or other institutions of industrialization, and many millions of people only have the basic technology. The introduction of Western technology has often led to excessive dependence on Western goods. For the population of developing countries dependent on subsistence agriculture has little relevance this kind of technology.

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Conclusion

The discoveries and technology developments continue to offer the human mind can not believe. Many think that having a website is a guarantee of success. Technology has an evil nature, because it gives a false sense of complacency. You have to put technology into perspective, but it is undeniable that the role fulfilled within organizations and therefore within humanity, it also means the positive and negative effects. According to Rifkin, author of the bestseller, technology is rapidly replacing the jobs in business and in 2020 ventured to observe the relentless elimination of factory workers.

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Their proposal is to perform a contract between government, employers, and the third sector consists of: civil associations and government agencies, to share the benefits arising from the use of technology and anticipate future social problems. In this context, education seems to be the key.


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