India is a big country with a variety of landforms, climate, food, languages and cultural practices. Each state of India and has its won culture.

India is a wonderful country.


Different parts of India experience different climate ranging from cold snowy winters, t hot summers and wet monsoons. The climate of a place is very important as it decides the kind of food that is grown and eaten, the type of clothes that are worn and the type of houses that are built.

Food: wheat requires less water and grows well in places that have a cold climate. Punjab and Haryana are the heat growing states.

For the people of the north and west, wheat is the staple food. Towards east and south, where here is good rainfall, rice is grown. In costal areas, people eat plenty fish.

Clothing: climate and physical features also affect the kind of clothes we wear. People o the colder states wear woolen clothes. People of the warm states wear cotton clothes. Similarly, people prefer lighter cloths during summers, while woolen cloths during winters. The sari is the most commonly won Indian dress for omen. The dhoti is a traditional Indian dress or men.


There are 22 recognized languages and several local languages in India.

Hindi is the most commonly spoken language in the northern states. Most of the states have their own languages in the south.

• The oldest known script (written language) in south Asia is the Brahmi.

Tribal life

The tribal communities generally live in and around forests. They depend on forests for their housing, food, medicine and other needs. The tribal communities have their own unique culture, customs, tradition, rituals.

Rural or village life

People living in rural areas and villages are generally involved in agriculture and live in communities. Life in villages does not have the hustle and bustle of a city life. Houses are simple and made of local materials. Small bricks houses. Traditionally, villages in India have a headman and Panchyat, composed of prominent members of the village.

Urban life

Town and cities are referred to as urban areas. Cities and towns are spread over large areas. Cities have modern facilities like schools, hospitals, big markets and modern houses.

Life in the city is very different from those in rural areas.

For livelihood, tribal and rural people depended on forests and agricultural produce, while people in cities work in offices, big factories, shops, hospitals etc.

India is home to many different cultures and traditions. It has great verities of dance, music, literature, religion and customs.

Although the basic ceremonies are similar, social and religious festivals are celebrated differently different parts of the country.

For example, Diwali in the south is celebrated to mark the defeat of the demon Narakasura. In the north, Diwali is celebrated to mark the return of Lord Rama to Ayodhya.

Navaratri in the south and east marks the killing of the demon Mahishasura. The people of west Bengal celebrate it as Durga Puja and the south celebrates with a Kolu or an exhibition of dolls. In the north, the festival I called Dussehra. It marks the end of Ravana’s life. However, all over India everyone celebrates the final day of the ten day festival as Vijayadasami. Vijayadasami stands for his triumph of good over evil.

India has several classical and folk dance forms. Some of the classical dances of the south are Bharatanatya from Tamil Nadu, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh and Mohiniyattam and Kathakali from Kerala. Kathak of utter Pradesh and Odissi of Orissa are famous classical dance forms of the north. Popular folk dances include Bhangra from Punjab, Bihu from Assam and Bamboo dance from Mizoram.

There is great variety in music too. The classical music of the north is called Hindustani and that the south is called carnatic. Other this, many forms of folk music are popular in different parts of the country. Some of the popular musical instruments are vena, tabla, mridangam, sitar, shehnai and nadaswaram.

Religions: India is a land of many religions and among it citizens you will find Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Jews all living in secular India.

• Mughal emperor Akbar gave us our first lesson in tolerance. He took the best and wisest elements from all the religions and created a religion for humanity, which be called Din-I –llahi.

We should learn to appreciate each other’s differences and live in peace and harmony. India’s strength is the ability to remain untied and at the some time maintain diversity.



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