The northern states of India lie between the Himalayas and the fertile plains formed by the rivers that flow from the Himalayas. Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Utter Pradesh and Uttarakhand constitute the northern states.

These states have a variety of physical features ranging from the very high and rugged snow –capped mountains to beautiful green valleys and vast green plains. The region has many rivers that are fed by the snowy mountains of the Himalayas.

These states have climate ranging from very cold winters to hot and warm summers.

Jammu and Kashmir

The state is famous for its snow –caped mountains, pine forests, houseboats on the Dal Lake, saffron, woolen carpets and shawls. This state is also called `Paradise n the Earth’. Srinagar is the capital of Jammu and Kashmir.

Himachal Pradesh

It is pine forests and fruit orchards. This state has great scenic beauty and s also a big tourist attraction. Shimla is the capital of Himachal Pradesh.

The hill state of Uttarakhand is famous for its shrines ad wildlife parks. It was earlier a part of Uttar Pradesh. The capital of Uttarakhand is Dehradun.

Punjab and Haryana states

The state of Punjab and Haryana are prosperous states of north India. Punjab is famous for the golden temple in Amritsar. Kurukshetra, the famous battlefield of the epic Mahabharata is in Haryana. Bhangra is a typical folk dance of this region. The city of Chandigrah serves as the capital of both the states. Both the states are rich in agriculture with wheat, oil seeds, Jowar and rice being important crops. They also have many important industrial like dairy products, sports goods and vehicles. Punjab is called the `Granary of India’.

Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh is well known for its art, culture and historical monuments of the Mughal period. Tajmahal is in Agra, Uttar Pradesh. The capital city Lucknow id famous for a special kind of embroidery called Chikankari.

The holy city of Benaras, which is also famous for its silk is also in Uttar Pradesh. The Kathak dance, a classical dance form in India has its origin here. Wheat, rice, sugar cane and potatoes are the main crops of Uttar Pradesh. The state is the largest producer of sugarcane in India. Cement, locomotives, textiles, sugar and jute mill are some of the important industries in the state.

The capital of India, the historic city of Delhi also lies in the northern region. The seat of the Mughal Empire, the city has many ancient monuments of great historical importance.

The western states

The western states of India have varied landforms-deserts, coasts, hills and mountain ranges. Examples are the Vindhya and Satpura hill ranges, the Western Ghats and the Narmada and Tapti rivers.

The climate in Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat is extreme, with very hot summers and cold winters. The other parts of the region have a moderate climate with good rainfall.

Rajasthan, also called the land of palaces, lies in the Thar Desert. Jaipur, the capital, is called the `pink city’ as most o the buildings here are built of pink-colored sandstone.

Gujarat is famous for its food, textiles, mirror work and embroidered handicrafts. The capital is Gandhinagar. This state is the birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi. Gir forest, the only sanctuary for Asiatic lions in India, is situated in Gujarat.

Maharashtra is on the western coast and is famous for its cave paintings and sculptures at Ajanta and Ellora. Mumbai, the capital of Maharashtra is a very busy port. Cotton, wheat, sugarcane, oranges, and mangoes are important agricultural products while textile, chemicals and automobile are the chief industries found in the state.

Goa is a land of beaches. The capital city is Panaji. Goa was Portuguese territory and has Portuguese in flounce on its culture. The state grows rice, cashew and coconuts. Shipping and mining are important industries. Goa is famous and carnivals.



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