Track and field events
The act of running a race with or with out hurdles, jumping, throwing of discus or javeli8n, held between individuals or teams, are together know as track and Field Events. Running race on tracks, which are specially made for the purpose, are called Track Events comprising the Field Events. The International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) governs the sport internationally and more than 200 member nations.
The modern Track and Field Events have their origin in the Olympic games of ancient Greece, which started more than 2,500 years ago. The dominate spirit of these events was mainly who could run the fastest, who could jump the highest or who could throw the modern Olympic motto of citius, Altius, Forties (faster, higher, stronger) is what events are all about.
The races range in length from a 50 meter dash to a marathon of 42 km 195 m. The shortest running events Rae called sprints or dashes. In this event, the athlete crouches at the starting line and starts running when the official fires the starter’s pistol. Sprinters place their feet against metal or plastic starting blocks located behind the starting line. The outdoor sprints consists of the 100-metre, 200-metre and 400-metre events Champions of this event include Jesses Owens, Wilma Rudolph, Evelyn Ashford, Carl Lewis, Florence Griffith Joyner and Michael Johnson of the United States; Harold Abrahams and Linford Christi tile of the United Kingdom; and Donovan Bailey of Canada.
Races ranging from 600 meters to 3,000 meters are known as middle distance events. Outstanding middle –distance3 performers over the years have included Paavo Nurmi of Finland; Roger Bannister of Britain, who was the first to break the 4-minute barrier in the mile; Jim Ryun of the United States; Sebastian Coe of the United Kingdom; and Noureddine Morceli of Algeria.
3,000 meters Runs longer than are considered distance events. The most common distance races are ones of 5,000 to 10’000 meters, and the marathon, which does not take place on a track but on please on a track but on paved roads. The long-distance runners have included languid Kristiansen and Grete Waitz of Norway, Email Zatopak of former Czechoslovakia, Frank Shorter of the United States, and Haile Gebrselassie of Ethippia. Cross- country races take place over rough, rolling terrain and can be as long as 14.5 km. Because of the varying conditions and sites, no world record is kept for cross- country racing. The relays are the only team event in track and field. Relays are split into four sections called legs, with one runner covering each, then passing a baton to the next runner. The baton pass must be completed within a 20 m long exchange zone, or team is disqualified.
The Hurdle events are dashes in which competitors must clear a series of ten barriers called hurdles. These are made of metal, wood or plastic. The hurdles are placed at equal distances over the course. The distance from the starting line to the first hurdle and the distance from the last hurdle to the finish line vary depending on the event. Success in hurdle race depends on sprinting smoothly while jumping over it, or if an athlete purposely knocks down hurdles.
The steeplechase covers 3,000 meters –seven and one-hail laps around a 400 meter track. On Each lap, runners must leap four hurdles that are 91 cm men and 76 cm for then leap into a sloping, 3.7 m long pool of shallow water.
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