Masonry

Various important terms in Brick masonry

>Brick masonry refers to the part of the building built up by brick and cement or lime mortar.

>Qunion is a corner or the external angle on the face side of the brick work.

>Course is a horizontal layer of masonry unit.

>Header is a full brick laid parallel to the length of the wall.

>Stretcher is a full brick laid so that its length is perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of wall.

>Bat is any portion of brick cut across its width. Ex (1/2 bat, ¾ bat etc)..

>Closer is a portion of brick in which one long face remains uncut.

>It is classified as king closer, queen closer and Bevelled closer.

>Lap is the distance between the vertical joints of successive bricks.

>Bed is the lower surface of a bricks or stone in each course.

Types of bonds in brick masonry

(a) Stretcher masonry

In this type all bricks are laid with their length parallel to the longitudinal direction of wall. Stretcher are available only in elevation.

(b) Header Bond

In this type all are laid with their length parallel to the longitudinal direction of wall. Used for construction of single bricks walls and for curved walls.

(c) English Bond

English bond is considered to the strongest. It is most commonly used for all wall thickness. It consists of alternate courses of headers and stretcher courses of headers and stretchers. The hearting consists of only headers for thicker walls.

(d) Flemish Bond

Appearance of this bond is better than the English bond. Alternate stretchers are headers are laid in each courses. Every stretcher is centrally supports by a header below it. Bats are used for walls equal to odd number of half bricks.

Comparison between English bond and Flemish bond

English bond

Flemish bond

Alternate course of stretcher and header.

Combination of headers and stretchers.

Appearance is not pleasing.

Gives skill and experience is required.

Mortar requirement is less.

Mortar requirement is more.

Greater skill is not required.

More skill and experience is required.

 

(e) Garden Wall Bond

Used for construction of garden walls, boundary walls, compound walls. It is classified in to garden wall English bond and garden wall Flemish bond. In garden wall English bond header course is provided only after 5 stretcher courses. In garden wall Flemish bond each course contains 1 header after 3-5 stretchers.

Construction of bricks Masonry

The bricks must be soaked sufficiently in water before use. The beds of courses shall be perpendicular to the line of pressure. Bricks should be laid on their beds in the proper position. Usage of bats should be less. Height of masonry constructed in a day should be restricted to 1 m. the bricks should be raised uniformly throughout length. A good bond should be maintained. After construction, the brick work should be kept wet for 1-2 weeks.

Stone masonry

It is made of stone units together with mortar.

Important terms in stone masonry:

>Bond stone is a long stone extending to the full thickness of stone wall.

>Corbel is a stone embedded in a wall with a partly outside projection.

>The filled up core of rubble wall is called hearting.

>The masonry portion forming the side of an opening is called Jamb.

>Cornice is a moulded portion that is formed on the top of a wall or architectural item.

Types of stone masonry

(a) Rubble masonry

In this type stones of irregular shapes and size are used. It is either broken to specified size with a hammer or used as it is. It is classified as flows.

(i) Random rubble masonry

It is cheapest form of stone masonry. It is further classified in to coursed and uncoursed. In course stone masonry the stones in a course are of equal heights. In uncoursed stone masonry the stone are irregular in shape. Larger stones are aid and the gaps are filled up with small stones.

(ii) Square rubble masonry

In this type the stones are squared or straight- dot finished. Stones having straight bed and sides are used. It is also classified as coursed and uncoursed. In coursed type the depth is varied in courses. In uncoursed type stones of different sizes with straight edges are arranged.

(iii) Polygonal rubble masonry

In this the stones are hammer depressed in a irregular polygonal shapes. The face joints are seen in an irregular fashion in all directions.

(iv) Flint rubble masonry

Flints or cobbles are used in this type. They are irregularly shaped nodules of silica. The stones re hard, hence break easily. The face arrangement may be coursed or uncoursed.

(v) Dry rubble masonry

Mortar is not used at the joints. Cheapest and requires more skill in construction. Used for non-load bearing walls, such as compound walls.

(vi) Ashlar Masonry

No irregular stones are used. Stones used are rectangular blocks dressed with chisel. The courses may vary from masonry are

>Ashlar fine masonry

>Ashlar rough tooled masonry.

>Ashlar rock or quarry faced masonry.

>Ashlar chamfered masonry.

>Ashlar block-in-course masonry.

Construction of stone masonry

>Stones should be strong, tough and hard.

>Each stones block should be well watered before used.

>All stones should be laid on their natural bed.

>Proper bond should be maintained.

>Small stones should be used for facing.

>Stones should be properly dressed as per the type of masonry.

>The wall should be raised uniformly.

>Mortar should be in proper proportion.

>The work should be kept wet at least 2-4 weeks after consruction.

 

 


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