The Industrial Revolution - History of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution - History of the Industrial Revolution
It begins in England in the mid eighteenth century. It is characterized by the passage of the manufacturing engineering industry. Introducing manufacturing machines multiplies the earned income and increases the overall production. England's industrialization advances in 50 years in relation to mainland Europe and come out ahead in colonial expansion.
The invention of machines and mechanisms such as moving the shuttle, the production of iron, coking coal, the steam engine, the spinner and mechanical loom cause a productive revolution. With the application of motive power to machinery factories, mechanization is spreading in textiles and mining. The plants start to produce in series and comes in heavy industry (steel and machinery). The invention of ships and steam locomotives accelerates the movement of goods.
Businessmen and Workers
The new industrial system transforms social relations and creates two new classes that are fundamental to the operation of the system. Entrepreneurs (capitalists) is the owners of capital, buildings, machinery, raw materials and goods produced by labor. The workers, employees or workers, have only their labor power and sell the business to produce goods in exchange for wages.
At the beginning of the revolution employers impose harsh working conditions for workers without increasing wages, to increase productivity and provide a profit margin increased. Discipline is strict but the conditions do not always provide security. In some factories the journey over 15 hours, breaks and holidays are not met and women and children have different treatment.
Arise from conflicts between workers, angered by the appalling working conditions, and entrepreneurs. The onset of predation are machinery and plants. Over time organizations are going to workers in that area.
Results for a long process in which workers gradually gain the right of association. In 1824, England, are created the first self-help centers and training. In 1833 British workers organize unions (trade unions) and local associations or by letter, for better conditions of work and life. Unions win the right to run in 1864 in France, in 1866 in the United States, and in 1869 in Germany.
First of May - is the date chosen in most industrial countries to celebrate Labor Day and celebrate the figure of the worker. The date comes from a working demonstration for better working conditions began on May 1, 1886, in Chicago, USA. On day 4, several workers are killed in clashes with police forces. As a result, the police arrest eight anarchists and accuses the disturbances.
Four of them are hanged, one committed suicide and three are subsequently forgiven. For this reason, since 1894, Labor Day, the United States, is celebrated on the first Monday of September.
Follows Process Industrialization
The main ones are the division of labor, mass production and development. To maximize the performance of the factories workers divided into several production operations and each worker performs a single party, always the same way (assembly line). While in the manufacturing worker produced a complete unit and knew the whole process, now becomes just part of it, limiting its field of technology on the work.
Accumulation of Capital
After Glorious Revolution the British bourgeoisie strengthens and allows the country has the largest free trade zone in Europe. Financial system is the most advanced. These factors favor the accumulation of capital and expansion of trade worldwide.
Increasingly strengthened, bourgeoisie is also investing in the field and creates the enclosure (large farms). New farming methods allow for increased productivity and rationalization of work. So many peasants no longer have field work or are expelled from their land. They seek work in cities and are incorporated by the infant industry.
Advances in preventive medicine and sanitary and epidemic control are conducive to growth. Thus increases the supply of workers for the industry.
Reserves of Coal
Also has large coal reserves, the British deposits are located close to major ports, which facilitates transport and installation of coal-based industries. At that time most European countries use wood and charcoal as fuel. The internal communications and commerce are facilitated by the installation of networks of roads and canals. In 1848 the UK has 8 thousand km of railways.
The location of England, in western Europe, easy to access the most important international trade routes and to conquer overseas markets. The country has many ports and intense coastal trade.
The second phase of the revolution (1860 to 1900) is characterized by the spread of early industrialization in France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United States and Japan is a growing competition and industry of capital goods. At this stage the main changes in the production process are the use of new forms of energy (electricity and petroleum derived).
Industrial revolution - Part 2
The Industrial Revolution is characterized by industrial production in large-scale market-oriented world, with intensive use of machinery. England is the first country to do it. The British economy begins to grow in 1780, and 1840, the industry is already mechanized, there is a national network of railroads, begins to build railroads in other countries, exports locomotives, wagons, ships and industrial machinery.
Age of Inventions
In eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the technology acquires its character of modern applied science. The discoveries and inventions quickly find practical application in industry or the development of science. The scientists themselves, many also self-taught, turn into inventors, as Michael Faraday, Lord Kelvin and Benjamin Franklin.
(1706-1790) statesman, writer, and American inventor. Rise in Boston, in a humble family and numerous - Brothers 17. At 10 years, begins working with his father, a manufacturer of soap. At 12, employed as an apprentice at the printing of one of his brothers.
In 1723, he moved to Philadelphia when he begins to devote himself to literature and the sciences. Self-taught, learning different languages. In 1730, already owns a printing shop and the Pennsylvania Gazette. State Assembly of Pennsylvania, is dedicated to politics and scientific research. In 1752, invented the lightning rod. Fifteen years later, helps to prepare the Declaration of Independence. His portrait appears on the note of $ 100.
Electricity - The first cell produced in 1800 by Alessandro Volta, to the light bulb by Thomas Edison in 1878, thousands of researchers dedicated to studying electricity in various parts of the world. Their findings accelerate the development of physics and chemistry and industrial processes.
Thomas Alva Edison
(1847-1931) - is one of the great American inventors. Born in Ohio, the son of a worker junkyard. It is literate by the mother and, at age 12, started working as a newsagent. During the Civil War install a printer on a wagon train and began publishing the weekly newspaper The Weekly Herald, which writes, prints and sells. It is dedicated to scientific research and is one of the first to establish a commercial laboratory specializing in practical inventions. It employs tens of scientists and researchers. Until 1928, had registered more than a thousand inventions like the phonograph (1877), the incandescent lamp (1878) and the Kinetoscope (1891).
In thinking about modernity, many people just think that we are referring to events, institutions and ways of doing this in the Contemporary World. In fact, this term has become easy word for many of those who try to define a single word in the world that we live. However, we think that this more dynamic context and changing out of nowhere, it has no historicity.
Between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, an extraordinary amount of change established a new perception of the world, that still beats in our times. Shortening distances to reveal the nature, launch seas never before navigated were only one of the few achievements that define this historical period. In fact, perceptions of time and space, once so extensive and progressive, gained a sense more intense and volatile.
The process of formation of national monarchies can be one of the most interesting examples that show this feature. In that short space of almost four centuries, the kings of Europe attended the consummation of its hegemonic power, and experienced the various revolutions liberal defenders of the division of political power and expanding the means of policy. Thrones and parliaments have a curious ciranda in just a blink of an eye.
Moreover, if we talk so much about technology and globalization, we can not refute the intrinsic link between these two phenomena and the modern age. The advent of the Great Navigations, also contributes to the accumulation of capital in Europe, was also important for the dynamics of an intercontinental nature of trade were to happen. Thus, the economic actions taken in one place would then affect other portions of the planet.
In the eighteenth century, the scientific spirit of the Enlightenment philosophers and scientists catapulted the search for knowledge at levels never before seen. Not surprisingly, the development of new machines and instruments developed in Britain the Industrial Revolution. Soon, the economic mindset of entrepreneurs, consumers, workers and employers set changes that are felt even today.
At first glance, the modern age may seem a bit confusing because of the fluidity of various historical facts which are displayed and, shortly thereafter, if reconfigured. However, talking with more specific events, you can mark out the measures that are the bridge between the contemporary and modern times. Just have a little time ... He even seems to be so volatile in this exciting historical period.