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Importance of Computer Hardware and Software

MIS management information system is the combination of software and hardware to process the information. The general terms of system in computer that can be providing the information such as finance, managing and business operation, and it also based upon the technology application to solving the business problem by the MIS.

MIS might be gathering, process and manage the information. Such as example, MIS system can be helping the customers to online buying or order the ticket and withdraw cash by automated teller machines. And normally MIS also might be the support website for the product, because it will automatically return the information to end user while the user is giving initial input that provide.

The MIS system typically having their own staff to who's to function it, maintain the existing system and implementation the new technologies with the company. MIS always management the oriented and keep in view for every level of management and gets the desired information. MIS having several usages for it, example like integrate, useful for planning, decision making for manager, provide high accurate, efficiently and update the result. MIS refers to how the different components are actually tied up together, as every organization company to make long term and short term plan with the information help (sales, production, capital investment, stocks or management).

MIS can be consider the system that provide people with either data or information relating to an organization operations. It support the activity of employee, owners, customers, and other key field of people in the organization environment.

Computers consist of two main elements, which is hardware and software. Hardware is a comprehensive term for all the physical parts of a computer, as distinguished from the data it contains or operates on. Components of hardware are printers, motherboard, floppy disk; CD-ROM. Software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions to a computer on what to do and how to do it. It can also be said that software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. As we can see, all organizations are computerized nowadays. All are using system technology in order to make their work done or make it in more advanced. Regarding that, organizations need to use the proper hardware and software according to their business and requirements. So basically, hardware and software plays an important role in management decision.

Computer hardware and software technology can enhance an organizational performance. So the computer hardware and software selection part must base on an organizational and business requires. Next, to considering how better of the technology meshes with the organization culture and structure as well as information-processing requirement. Computer hardware and software technology services provided from outside vendors must be suitable into their organizational computing plans.

Hardware is an equipment in a computer based on information system. Hardware are wide variety of available in today technology marketplace (hundreds of different general purpose computers, printers, and display devices exist nowadays). Software is the program application system in a computer. There are various types of hardware associated with computer information system. Software include both computer programs and their accompanying documentation. All program on computer system having two categories (application software and system software). Application software include user-oriented program written in programming languages, also include the programs, software package, and tools which is need for specific usage, end-user-oriented tasks as billing, word processing and database management and etc. And the other one is system software, consist of 'background' program that enable application software to run smoothly on a specific set of hardware. Manager need a working knowledge of operating system, languages translator, and utility programs. Operating system (OS) is a main for system software.

Why is selecting computer hardware and software for an organisation an important management decision?

Computer hardware and software within an organisation is of the utmost importance for a number of reasons.

Reliability: in order for the smooth running of a business, it is important that the computers you have in place are reliable- i.e. They do not break easily, and last for a long time.

Ease of useSoftware should not be too difficult to use, or highly specialised that only a couple of members of staff are able to use it because if these members of staff are away or leave the company, there will be nobody with the necessary knowledge if there are issues with the program.

Cost: The cost of computer equipment needs to be carefully budgeted for. If too little is spent, the equipment may break and need to be replaced shortly, too much, and the business may have expensive features they do not need, and if they need to rapidly expand and buy more equipment, they may not be able to afford to do so.

Information technology is a powerful business driver for encouraging the development of global system application and global value chains, where the firm can be coordinate commercial transactions and production with other firms across many different locations throughout the world.

Managers are responsible for devising an appropriate organizational and technology infrastructure for international business. Choosing a global business strategy, identify the core of business process, organizing the firm to conduct business on an international scale, and developing international information systems architecture, these all the important key for management decision.

After this, the cultural, political and languages diversity magnifies different in organizational culture and standard operating procedures when company operate internationally in various countries, these differences create barriers to the development of global information system that transcend national boundaries.

Then, the main technology decision in building international systems is finding a set of workable standards in hardware, software, and networking for the firm international information system infrastructure and architecture. The internet and intranets will increase used to provide global connectivity and to serve as a foundation for global systems, but many companies will still need proprietary systems for certain functions, and therefore international standards.

There are 4 main of global strategies form the basis for global firm organizational structure. These are domestic exporter, multinational, franchiser, and transnational. Each of these strategies is pursued with a specific business organizational structure.

The domestic exporter strategy is characterized by heavy centralization of corporate activity in the home country of origin. Nearly all international companies begin this way, and some move on to other forms. Production, finance/accounting, sale/marketing, human resources, and strategic management are set up to optimize resource in the home country.

The multinational strategy concentrates financial management and control out of a central home base while decentralizing production , sale, and marketing operations to units in other countries. The products and services on sale indifferent countries are adapted to suit local in other countries. The organization becomes a far-flung confederation of production and marketing facilities in different countries.

Franchisers are an interesting mix of old and new. On the one hand, the product is created, designed, financed, and initially produced in the home country, but for product-specific reasons must rely heavily on foreign personnel for further production, marketing, and human resource. Generally, foreign franchises are clones of the mother country units, but fully coordinated worldwide production that could optimize factors of production is not possible.

Next, transnational firms are the stateless, truly globally managed firms that may represent a larger part of international business in the future. Transnational firms that have no single national headquarters but instead have many regional headquarters and perhaps a world headquarters. Transnational firms take the globe, not the home country, as their management frame of reference. Few companies have actually attained transnational status, but Citicorp, Sony, ford, and other are attempting this transition.

The way to identify this core business process is to conduct a work-flow analysis. When understand the business process of a firm, you can rank order them, which can decide processes should be core application. Centrally coordinated, designed, and implement around the globe, and which should be regional and local. At the same time, by identify the critical business process, the really important ones that have a long way to define a vision of the future that should be work toward.

To implementing a global system requires an implementation strategy. Typically, global system has evolved without a conscious plan. The remedy is to define a small subset of core business process and focus on building systems that to widely dispersed foreign unit to participate in the development and operation of the system, and carefully to maintain overall control.

The maintenance part for application, it will making the system changes the course of it useful life (It can be mean maintaining hardware and software). Maintaining the system constantly modernizing the application system to keep it functioning smoothly and fine. There are four general approaches use for maintenance should be known as a manager. There are Corrective maintenance, Adaptive maintenance, perfective maintenance and Preventive maintenance. Chosen a right way for maintenance is very helpful and important for manager in feature.

For the global culture, it is create by television and other globally shared media such as movies that permits different cultures and people to develop common expectations about right and wrong, desirable and undesirable, heroic and cowardly. The collapse of the eastern bloc has speed up the growth of a world culture enormously, increased support for capitalism and business, and reduced the level of cultural conflict considerably. These general cultural factors leading toward internationalization result in specific business globalization factors that affect most industries. The growth of powerful communications technologies and the interest in consuming similar products that are culturally approved.

For the hardware, software and telecommunication pose special technical challenges in an international setting. The major hardware challenge is finding some way to standardize the firm computer hardware platform, when there is so much of variation from operating unit to operate unit and from country to country. Manager need to think carefully about where to locate the firm computer centres and how to select the hardware suppliers.

The major global application that are user friendly and that truly enhance the productivity of international work teams. Overcoming these challenges require the system integration and connectivity on global basis. The development of global systems based on the concept of core system raises question about how the new core systems will fit in with the existing suite of application developed around the globe by different division, different people, and different kinds of computing hardware. After a hardware platform had chosen, the question of standards must be addressed. Because all site use the same hardware will not guarantee common, integrated systems.

Compatible hardware provides a platform but not the total solution. It also critical to global core infrastructure is software. The development of core system for software part, entirely new interfaces must be built and tested if old system is kept in local area which is common. The interfaces can be costly and messy to build. If want to build new software, build the software that can be realistically used by multiple business units form different countries given these business units are accustomed to their unique business process and definitions of data.

Besides the integrating the new with old system, there are problems of human interface design and functionality of system. For instance, to be truly useful for enhancing productivity of global workforce, software interface must be easily understanding and mastered quickly, and presuppose common languages (often English). But international system penetrates deeper into management and clerical groups, common languages may not be assumed and human interfaces must be built to accommodate different languages and even conventions.

The successful of developing and international application system, is need the experience in developing an ordinary domestic system as well as good. Manager should organize the value and adding activity along the line of advantages. Likes, sale marketing function must be located where they can to performance with better. And develop and operate system unit for each level (regional, national and international), should be develop and operate the international telecommunication and system development for it.





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