Multilateral Export Control Regime :- After the World War 2, all the countries wanted to prevent the use and spread of weapons in the world. Multilateral Export Control Regime are the groups which are independent of United Nations and that countries can use to control export of weapons. The regulations of this regime applies only to the nations which are members and also it is not mandatory for all countries to join these groups. The four major groups/regimes are below :-

1) Missile Technology Control Regime(MTCR) :- India joined this group in 2016. This group was established by G7 countries in the year 1987. G7 countries are- Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, USA and U.K. The objective of this group is to prevent missile more than 500 KG and which can travel more than 300 KM to be available to available to all the countries. After India has joined this group, it has enabled India to buy high-end missile technology and enhance its joint venture with Russia. MTCR aims at restricting spreading of missile technology and weapons of mass destruction (WMD). India joined Hague Code Of Conduct which made it possible for India to enter this group. Total 34 countries are part of MTCR of which China is not a member.

2) Wassenaar Arrangement:- This is a group of 42 countries which was established in the year 1996 in Wassenaar,Netherlands. The objective of this group is to provide security and stability by promoting transparent practices in sales and transfer of weapons. Their objective is also to prevent the spread of the weapons to terrorists. The countries in this group exchange detailed list of all the countries who have acquired nuclear/non-nuclear weapons and who have not joined this group. India joined this group in 2017. After becoming member of this group India can easily access the dual use technologies/materials/military equipment which is not allowed to non-member countries. India can also sell nuclear reactors, materials, military equipment to other countries. India can also collaborate with other countries to establish military capabilities.

3) Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG):- It is group of nuclear supplier countries whose objective is to prevent the export of nuclear materials, technologies and equipment to the non-member countries which can be used to develop nuclear weapons. It was established in response to Indian Nuclear Test in the year 1974. As of now, 48 countries are part of this group. India is not a part of this group yet even though USA has permitted civil nuclear trade with India as an exception.

4) Australia Group:- The objective of this group is to control spread of biological weapons or technologies which can be used to develop such weapons. This group was formed in year 1985 after the use of biological weapons by Iraq in year 1984. As of now it has 43 members. India joined this group in year January 2018.

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usha manohar
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