The term "research" derives from the old French verb "recerchier," which translates as "to search and search again." It literally refers to conducting another search for something and implicitly implies that the previous search was not exhaustive and thorough in the sense that there is still room for improvement. In everyday parlance, research refers to the pursuit of knowledge. It can be characterised as a methodical and scientific search for useful knowledge on a particular subject/area. Indeed, research is a form of scientific inquiry. The Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Contemporary English defines research as "a thorough investigation or enquiry, particularly for the purpose of discovering new facts in any field of expertise." According to Redman and Mory, research is "a systematic endeavour to acquire new knowledge." According to some, research is a movement, a journey from the known to the unknown. Indeed, it is a voyage of discovery.

Research is a scientific method for addressing a research issue, resolving an issue, or developing new knowledge by collecting, organising, and analysing data in a systematic and organised manner with the ultimate purpose of making the research useful for decision-making. In any subject of inquiry, systematic research entails three fundamental procedures. 1. Data collection refers to the process of observing, measuring, and documenting data.

2. Data analysis: This refers to the process of collecting and organising obtained data in order to determine their relevance and make generalisations about them.

3. Report writing is an integral component and end result of every research investigation. Its objective is to provide information to its readers or audience.

Legal research is characterised in this sense as the systematic discovery of law on a particular subject and progress of the science of law. It entails conducting a systematic search of legal sources, including statutes, regulations, and judicial declarations. To develop the science of law, one must delve into the 'underlying concepts or justifications of the law.' These activities necessitate a methodical approach. When a researcher adheres to the scientific process, an approach becomes systematic. Research is systematic in the sense that it follows a set of logical steps. These processes are as follows: comprehending the nature of the problem to be studied and establishing a connection to existing knowledge.

Reviewing the literature to gain a better understanding of how others have approached or solved the challenge.

Collecting data in an orderly and controlled manner in order to get meaningful conclusions. Analyzing data that is relevant to the topic. Drawing conclusions and making generalisations.

Posing a Question

New Inquiries Identifying critical factors reevaluating the theory Developing hypotheses experimenting with hypotheses Collecting pertinent data and testing hypotheses

Thus, legal research is the act of discovering and obtaining information necessary to assist in making legal decisions. It encompasses each stage of a process that begins with an analysis of the facts surrounding a problem and concludes with the application and communication of the investigation's findings.

Research Characteristic

Research is a process through which we attempt to obtain an answer to a question, a solution to a problem, or a better knowledge of a phenomenon by a methodical approach and the use of data. This procedure is distinguished by eight key qualities.

1. Begins with a query or issue.

2. Requires a well-articulated purpose.

3. Adheres to a predetermined method.

4. Typically subdivides the primary issue into more manageable sub-issues.

5. Is led by the research problem, topic, or hypothesis in question.

6. Adheres to certain critical axioms.

7. Requires the collection and evaluation of data in order to seek resolution of the research topic.

8. Is cyclical in nature; or more precisely, helical.


The primary objective or purpose of research in any field of study is to add to our understanding of the phenomenon being investigated through the use of scientific procedures. The following is the purpose of the research:

1. Investigation

3. Causal Explanation

4. Forecasting.

Identification of the Issue

Analyzing Information Reviewing Data Collection


Exploration is the process of learning about previously unknown phenomena. It is especially beneficial when researchers are unsure of the types of challenges they will encounter during the course of the investigation. Researchers - Clarify notions through exploration


Defining operational terms

Formulate research hypotheses and revise the final design of the study.

Exploratory studies typically have an informal architecture with the goal of identifying future research objectives. Consider the following scenarios in which one could consider undertaking exploratory research:

The city's crime rate is increasing at an alarming rate, for reasons that remain unknown. The issue is confusing, and it is necessary to establish what is truly occurring.

When a new product is being promoted, the manufacturer is concerned about whether the product will be accepted by the public.

The term "description" refers to activities including the collection of data. Descriptive studies are used to refer to studies that describe settings and happenings. Descriptive studies seek to elucidate the who, what, when, where, and occasionally how. In the following instances, a descriptive research may be feasible: - What qualities characterise those involved in urban crime? Are these children?

Are you in your thirties? Are you impoverished?

Who are the new product's prospective purchasers? Male or female? Are you a city dweller or a country dweller?

Explanatory Research: An explanatory study goes beyond description and makes an attempt to establish a causal relationship between variables. It explains why the event seen in the study occurred. Thus, if a researcher discovers that communities with a larger family size have a higher rate of child mortality, he or she is conducting a descriptive study. If the researcher explains why something is the way it is and attempts to show a cause-and-effect relationship, the researcher is conducting an explanatory study.

These investigations are frequently referred to as causal studies. The following examples are appropriate for causal research - Why do people commit crimes? Can we explain this as a result of the current employment market crisis? Or is it due to a lack of parental care?

Will purchasers be enticed to purchase a new product packaging in a new container? Can they be motivated by beautiful advertisements?

Prediction: Prediction attempts to determine when and under what circumstances an event will occur, assuming a credible explanation for the vent in question can be offered. Along with explaining an event after it occurs, it will be able to forecast when the occurrence will occur.

As a result, the research purpose of a particular study may fall into one of the following general categories.

Acquaint yourself with a phenomenon or gain new insights about it.

Accurately depict the features of an individual, circumstance, or group.

Calculate the frequency with which an event occurs or is linked.

Conduct a causal link analysis between two or more facts or circumstances.

Recognize and comprehend phenomena in order to formulate the problem precisely.

To adequately describe a phenomenon and to evaluate theories about the links between its various dimensions.

Several other study aims may be stated as follows.

Provide solutions to challenging problems; investigate natural laws; make fresh discoveries; create new goods; reduce expenses; and enhance our quality of life and human aspirations.


To have a clear understanding of research, one must understand the scientific method. The scientific method is concerned with the search for truth as determined by logical arguments. The goal of science is to establish a systematic relationship between facts. The scientific method aspires to this goal through experimentation, observation, logical reasoning based on accepted postulates, and a mixture of these three methods in varied amounts. The scientific process is predicated on a number of fundamental postulates, which can be summarised as follows.

is empirically based, makes use of relevant concepts, is committed to only objective considerations, assume ethical neutrality, converts results into probabilistic predictions, is made publicly available through replication, and strives to formulate the most general axioms.

Thus, scientific method entails an objective, logical, and systematic approach, i.e., one that is free of personal bias or prejudice, one that is used to ascertain demonstrable characteristics of a verifiable phenomenon, one that is guided by logical reasoning rules, one that is used to conduct an investigation in an orderly fashion, and one that entails internal consistency.

1.1 Table

The Scientific and Nonscientific Approaches to Knowledge

Non-scientific Methods of Research Methodology of Science

Intuitive Empirical Intuitive Empirical Intuitive Empirical Intu

Remark haphazard, uncontrolled Systematic, regulated

Compilation Subjective, biassed Objective, unbiased

Thoughts Ambiguous, replete with redundant meanings Definitions that are precise, operational specificity

Instruments Imprecise, inaccuracies Accurate, exact

Calculation Invalid or untrustworthy Valid and trustworthy

Speculations Unprovable Examinable

Attitude Uncritical, accepting


Whatever forms of research have been conducted, they are all united by the scientific method. Scientific study must meet the following criteria: - The study objective must be clearly specified, and common terminology should be employed.

The study technique should be detailed in sufficient detail to enable another researcher to replicate it in order to progress the field.

The study procedure should be thoroughly prepared in order to produce the most objective results feasible.

The researcher should be forthright in describing shortcomings in the procedure's design and estimating their impact on the findings.

Data analysis should be sufficient to expose its relevance, and the procedures utilised should be appropriate. The validity and dependability of data should be thoroughly examined.

Conclusions should be limited to those that are justified by the research findings.

Additionally, good research possesses the following characteristics:

1. It is systematic: Research is structured around predefined steps that must be followed in a predefined order and according to a predefined set of norms. While the systematic nature of the research does not preclude creative thinking, it does preclude the use of guesswork and intuition in reaching results.

2. It is logical: Research is governed by logical reasoning standards, and the logical processes of induction and deduction are extremely beneficial when conducting research. Induction is the process of reasoning from a subset to the whole, whereas deduction is the process of reasoning from a given premise to the conclusion that follows from it. Indeed, logical reasoning enhances the utility of research in decision-making contexts.

3. Good research is empirical: It is primarily concerned with one or more aspects of a genuine situation and utilises concrete evidence to establish the external validity of research findings.

4. Replicable research: Research findings must be replicated in order to establish a sound basis for decision-making.


It is advantageous to be able to categorise a research study since each category or style of research employs a distinct set of methodologies. There are two approaches to classify research: one is to classify research according to its aim, and the other is to classify research according to the method used.

Using goal as a criterion, research is classified into three types: fundamental, applied (including developmental research), and evaluative. The other criterion for categorising research is the methodology used. The research methodology is defined by the techniques used to collect and analyse data. Methodological classifications include historical, descriptive, correlational, ex-post facto, and experimental research.

When the solution to a research problem appears to have no obvious applicability to any existing practical problem but solely to the academic interests of a community of researchers, the research is said to have a basic reach. Fundamental research aims to produce and expand a basic understanding of the social world. It is of no practical use and has a negligible direct effect on behavior, performance, or policy decisions. Fundamental researchers use a more dispassionate and intellectual approach and frequently have their own motivations. For instance, a social researcher in a developed country examined the association between religion and occupation. If we attempt to determine whether the association observed in developed countries exists in underdeveloped ones, we are conducting basic research. Pure basic research is an experimental and theoretical study conducted solely for the purpose of acquiring new knowledge without regard for long-term rewards other than knowledge advancement. Strategic basic research is an experimental and theoretical study focused on the acquisition of new information in designated broad areas with the hope of making beneficial discoveries.

It establishes the wide foundation of knowledge required to solve recognised practical challenges.

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