Physical Training in Sports - How to Make a Better Player?
Specific Features to consider are use of activities according to the age of the individual on the principle that the child is not a small adult. We embrace this philosophy of work from the first moments when the player joins the ranks of any team. Their physiological, anatomical, psychological, not similar to the capabilities of an adult and therefore deserve special care, both as regards quality and quantity of repetitions you can perform in a training session. Among other things, training volume and intensity of it must be tailored to the individual characteristics of each team member, taking into account the heterogeneity of capabilities that can be found at these ages. Sports behaviors fall within the realm of ontogenetic activity invented by man's culture) and are much harder to achieve than the everyday activities, thus requiring extensive training. Allow maturation according to the evolving capacities of the Central Nervous System basing the work on criteria of biological maturation and not chronological in order to facilitate success in the motor tasks.
Adequate coordinative skills training within the sport-driving context, given its importance in team sports: Conditional Capabilities: Certain mostly morphological form (e.g. hypertrophy of muscle fibers) and how energy metabolism). Coordinative capabilities depend mainly on directors and regulatory processes of the CNS and peripheral. One should focus in our case in the coordinated-driving capabilities, always in close relationship with fitness. Our interest will focus on those skills that are crucial coordinative tasks of coordinating the following:
- Quick Fixes in time
- Exact solutions
- Appropriate solutions
Consider general coordinative capabilities therefore:
- Merge Capabilities
- Counseling skills
- Differentiation capacity
- Capacity balance
- Ability to adapt and change
Specific coordinative abilities:
- Product or result of the expression of specific partial motor actions, the result of a high level of overall coordination capacity in combination with specific skills.
- Possible to achieve optimal motor skills.
- Skill Capacity umbrella + specific = Sensitivity to the ball
Knowledge of the learning process and motor development:
- Teaching phases of motor learning:
- Three and call as follows:
- Development of global coordination
- Development of fine coordination
Stabilization of fine coordination and development of availability variable movement
Factors influencing the process of motor learning:
- Characteristics - Trigger - previous experience - transfer
- The characteristics of the task: There are three types of successive mechanisms and strongly interrelated in the operation of a motor action:
Sight, hearing, touch and technical gestures
What to do?
Key features driving the maturation of children aged 10 to 14 years
a) Pre-pubertal stage (10 to 12 years) - Introduction sports
* Because the growth is slower than in the earlier stage, and the muscles are developed, coordination significantly improves both the overall and specific dynamics (eye-hand, eye-foot, eye-head). Also improves strength.
* They respond better to the efforts of resistance because the circulatory and respiratory achieve better conditions. The recovery effort is relatively fast.
Therefore: Suitable for sports, including training, matches and competitions
Motor is capable of far more involving coaches
In summary, an ideal stopover for sports initiation.
You can not miss the young man at the stage of maturation more conducive to the development of athletic skills. Suitable for teaching and learning of individual skills and game tactics game set. If the work flexibility, coordination, agility, balance and relaxation. If too, but with caution in the work force, endurance and speed. Yes to multiple training (various sports) and not, for now, specialization, though it can be determined sport whose championship will participate.
b) pubertal stage (13 to 14) - Guidance sports
We present functional imbalances and appears as a brake on development of coordination. The muscles, growing along more than width, have difficulty moving the bony levers. The resistance is less on growth for the large increase in the cardiac cavity. Easily fatigued.
Postural defects are common therefore:
- Suitable for sports, including training, matches and competitions.
- Motor pays less than expected according to what has been achieved in the previous stage
- We are in the ideal stage to place emphasis on technical training, especially in the tactical
- Physical preparation of low and medium intensity
- Yes to labor flexibility, coordination, balance, agility and relaxation
- Yes the work of strength and endurance with low and medium loads and wide intervals of recovery. The introduction to the weights is indicated but with caution
- Yes to speed work, but with wide intervals of recovery
- No power to work
- Yes to multiple training (various sports), not specialization
- At the end of this stage should be defined the specialty sports and individual position.
The construction of an athlete
At the beginning of the construction of technical training athlete is the key for his strong motivation. Only practically based and facilitates the acquisition, development and improvement of individual skills and game tactics of the game in whole, developing perceptual-motor skills.
A physical training through technical training
In building the athlete affect three types of workouts, which can be summarized as follows:
- Technical Training
- Physical Training
- Construction of the athlete
Technical training has as main objective, the acquisition, development and improvement of skills or abilities of the individual game and tactics of the game altogether. Physical training has as main objective the development and improvement of all perceptual qualities - inherent to the individual motor. The perceptual qualities - are driving the power generating organic movement. In practice join the individual game skills and playing tactics to produce the overall athletic performance. The training is invisible, as main objective the development and refinement of all the attitudes of athletes who are on the one hand, cognition (memory, intelligence, speedy trial, etc..) Running skills, tactics and perceptual qualities driving and on the other hand, volitional qualities (the character) that affect cognitive greater or lesser degree.
Perceptual qualities - drive
The perceptual qualities (sensory organs) are responsible for providing relevant information to the nervous system and to establish the necessary relationships between all the organs and systems.
To date have been classified and named by scientists as follows:
- Exterioceptives: sight, sound and touch
- Proprioceptive: muscle spindles, tendon and joint receptors receptors
- Interoceptive: related glands and other organs to athletic performance
- Relaxation (decontraction) relaxation is the smallest state of muscle tension. The return of the muscle fiber to its lowest tone possible after contraction
Stretch - Flexibility: The elasticity is the ability to regain his form of rest, immediately ceases the force that deforms or stretches. Flexibility is the ability to displace the bone segments that are part of the joints, or series of joints such as the spine
Coordination: The ability to use the properties of the locomotor system smoothly under the direction of the nervous system. Makes effective the other elements of fitness, such as strength, endurance, speed and flexibility by giving them an application on their athletic performance. It is considered also as the ability to synchronize the actions of the muscles producing the movement, they intervene at the right time, speed and appropriate intensity.
Balance: It is the power to take a position or make a movement against gravity and to maintain body control in difficult circumstances
Strength: The ability of muscle to develop tension against an external force.
Basically we can group the types of force into four major blocks:
- Maximum Strength: The maximum tension that a muscle develops muscle against maximal resistance. It is therefore the maximum load that a muscle can lift. It's an intensity of 100% and their movements are slow.
- Rapid Force or Power: The way to overcome a resistance or load is not high (between 60% and 80%), with great speed.
- Force Resistance: The resistance of a muscle or muscle group to manage fatigue during a repetitive contractions.
- Explosive Strength: The ability of a muscle to overcome a light load (about 30%) at maximum speed.
Resistance: is the most important factor in fitness. It is the quality that allows opposing psychophysiological fatigue, effectively prolonging the activity. With it you can withstand fatigue syndrome and can make long-term efforts, including efforts very intense, with oxygen debt.
Resistance can be grouped into two groups:
- Aerobic endurance: It is a soft and medium intensity. It is characterized is with a heart rate ranging from 120 to 140 beats per minute. It'sa kind of effort where there is a balance between oxygen consumption and contribution. In other words, is performed under aerobic conditions (presence of oxygen). That is why is the ability that allows us to perform a balancing exercise oxygen (there is a balance between the need and oxygen supply to the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen and nutrients to the muscles materials and transport products waste formed during the effort).
- Anaerobic Resistance: The resistance that can endure for as long as possible an oxygen debt caused by the high pace of work. Can be of two types:
- Alactic Anaerobic Resistance: occurs in stress level and do not produce lactic acid accumulation. These are stresses that exceed the 180 p / m. The duration of such efforts is 5 to 7 "thanks to ATP and up to 15" and 20 "with the intervention of creatine phosphate. The recovery ranges from 2 'to 3'. The heart rate of 120 p / m is considered as the level of recovery of ATP-FC. Discontinuation of exercise is caused by ATP depletion and central nervous system fatigue.
- Anaerobic lactic Resistance: Upon completion of this exercise class is a strong buildup of lactic acid, and corresponds to efforts of sub-maximal intensity. Reach heart rates above 160 p / m, sometimes exceeding 200 p / m. The energy once spent the ATP-FC, obtained from the degradation of sugars, glucose and fat than ending in the formation of pyruvic acid and lactic acid. The duration of this effort is the 30 "to 1 '. Is necessary to recover from 4' to 5 '. The fatigue is caused by an insufficient intake of oxygen, lactic acid accumulation and the gradual depletion of reserves alkaline.
Speed: It's another quality sport performance determinants, being
Present in all sporting events: run, jump, lift, tap, intercept, attack, defend, namely the the physical qualities. Speed is the distance traveled in the shortest time possible.
We consider six types of speeds, they are:
Reaction speed: the ability to react to a stimulus, giving a motor response. Goes from 0 to 5-6 meters.
- Speed of Execution: the ability to reproduce a movement or a sporting gesture in the shortest possible time. Only moves a body part or all of small displacements. An example is the blows of karate or boxing.
- Acceleration speed: the ability to increase the speed above. This increase is greater the greater the force acting on the moving body. It ranges from 5-6 meters up to around 25.
- Displacement speed: the ability to traverse a distance in the shortest possible time and is the result of perfect coordination of the amplitude and frequency. It ranges from 25 to 50 meters.
- Speed: is the maximum speed capability. It is the time frame where they appear the most of all the parameters of speed. It ranges from 40 meters to 75 meters.
- Speed Resistance: the ability to withstand high speed or the ability to maintain a high speed as much distance or time as possible. It ranges from 75 meters and up.
What is the physical preparation?
It is the application of a set of physical exercises designed to rationally develop and refine the perceptual qualities - drive the player to get a better athletic performance. It is a complex problem that demands the most rational trial supported the principles approved by the Research for sport.
The Goals of Physical Preparation
The objectives will always come first even if the ultimate in attainable. The objectives are important because they help clarify what the coach and/or trainer want from their students. It helps in areas such concrete and useful as:
- Know what the content to the physical preparation, as well as better balance
- Determine the most appropriate methodological technique for teaching - learning
- Establish a motivating and challenging assessment for their athletes, while allowing you to know how he handles the entire training process and how those evolve.
The clear objectives linked to the athlete to act consciously doing training for their benefit. Furthermore, there can be no proper assessment without clear objectives, it is impossible to judge the effectiveness of an action without knowing the effect or the desired result.
Within the teaching sports are three classes of objectives:
- General: These refer to the maximum values which are processed to achieve by the institution, coach, PF and athlete. This feature will make it permanently useful as a reference point.
- Specific (short term) have time limits. Closely related to the content. Are fairly evaluated.
- Terminal phase (medium term): Present time limit. Closely related to the overall objectives and content.
They are fairly evaluated and are set for the end of each of the three phases of the construction of the athlete.
- General objectives of the physical preparation:
- The overall objectives of the specific physical preparation into three:
- To help, the technical and psychological training, to build the athlete.
- Support, technical training and psychological, to develop and refine perceptual-motor skills. In practice, this objective is the most important. The exercises in physical training and its organization will be directed to develop and perfect those qualities.
- Support, technical training and psychological ways to reach sports and tuning. This objective will provide guidance in moments of the annual cycle necessary to achieve athletic form and set-up.
Planning is the provision and accuracy of the goals we must achieve and the means used to achieve this. The era of improvisation must be left behind and replaced by planning, periodization and programming, which represents the order against disorder, logic and empiricism versus research, forecasting versus improvisation. The planning covers the entire process from initiation to completion sport with sport specialization. It sets the stage of the process and managed the general outlines of the work to be done.
It's a mental project (research) and then poured into a role that is taken before training starts, to establish the objectives to be achieved and the means they use. The planning is based primarily on child characteristics and maturation times of cognitive, affective and motor, and its relation to the acquisition, development and refinement of perceptual-motor skills.
It covers only one year's process. It handled the annual period of training:
Preparatory: Start with two weeks of anatomical adaptation, in which and, after coming in a transitional period without practice, it starts very gently, being the first week of recreational activities that involve not only football, other sports recreational practices and not exceeding 60 minutes of practice. The second week is still with the same activities (trying to play every sport possible) but extending the length of training to 90 minutes maximum. The only physical quality that is intentionally and separate work of multilateral, is flexibility. Anatomical Adaptation After the preparatory period is completed as follows.
1) Conduct test of the physical qualities of first degree (including flexibility)
2) Perform aerobic endurance work (the first session will be physical and physical-technical post)
3) In parallel to the aerobic work, perform work of pure strength exercises involving the media's own body weight (exercises that involve the main article)
4) Work aerobic power based on speed runs to ¾
5) Finalizing this period, we began to work on speed (the first sessions will be physical and physical-technical post)
Pre-competitive: In this period the work is virtually 100% of physical exercises and technical (recreating all possible situations of sport) and technical drills.
Competitive: Maintain a sport achieved so far. The physical works are mixed with the technical work (as they are possible).
Post-competitive: He calls this period when the league ended and before the transition period. Work is continued for about two weeks to bring a state of calm to the body undergoes training during the competitive year. The activities are almost the same as the anatomical adaptation period, but with a twist: the duration of the training session is reversed, and we spent the first week with durations of 90 minutes per practice for the second week durations of 60 minutes each.
Transition: This name is given to this period, because physical activity is to design and planning to move to a rest period.
The programming consists of arranging the entire system operatively learning activities in order to achieve predetermined goals. It's a learning process and prior to that anticipates everything the coaches and trainers will be conducted in the field. It is a unitary process, where all components of the mutual interaction. With the programming is intended to create greater specificity and operationalization of the planning done by means of a harmonic structure throughout the instructional process, seeking the most appropriate techniques for maximum effectiveness.
It is a long and complex, and continuously adapting through its continuous feedback:
- Goals to achieve
The schedule gives rise to the training plans that fall within three periods of the annual cycle. The training plan is for the cell of periodization and planning. Determines training exercises, and practice becomes the training session.
Basic elements of a training plan:
The main elements of a training plan, whether technical, physical, technical and physical, are:
- The objectives to achieve
- The number of repetitions of each exercise
- The number of sets of each exercise
- The recovery interval between exercises and sets
- The action during the interval
- The duration
These elements have two very definite characteristics:
They operate very closely linked
They are very flexible to accommodate various levels of athletes, to climatic conditions and type of training
4. Main objectives and means to be used for physical training
a) 10 to 11 - 12 years
Type of Training:
Technical and physical (in the same session). 80% or more of the exercises will be technical.
Three, plus a party
Duration of each session:
60 to 75 minutes
- Develop and improve the perceptual qualities through technical training
- Emphasize the development and improvement of coordination (general and specific dynamics) through technical training
- Develop strength, muscle endurance lumbo-abdominal, chest and upper limbs with physical exercises that are included in the technical training. To develop strength-endurance of the muscles of the legs is sufficient technical training, provided they are accompanied with some physical exercises to prevent shock of the antagonists.
- Developing resilience through technical training. You get with sequential movement exercises and decreasing rest intervals between exercises in game situations (tactical) or meetings within the session.
- Develop flexibility with physical exercises that are included in the heating and cool-down. We should take at least 10 to 15 minutes per session to maintain flexibility.
- The development of other motor skills such as relaxation, speed, agility, balance and power, is achieved through technical training.
- The physical training exercises are hands-free and with medicine balls and loads represent low to medium intensity (60% - 70%).
The annual cycles are divided into three periods: preparatory, transitional and specific, dealing first with the duration of the championship and the main parties
Training plans: For each period of training plans are put in 5 to 6 weeks
Rating: It is based on a fitness test focused on the dominant driving qualities
The fitness record used to evaluate subjective / objective skills and tuning. We also serve to start-up assessment.
b) 13 - 14 years
Type of Training: Technical and physical, technical or physical (when time does not permit separation)
Weekly sessions: Three or four, plus a party
Duration of each session: 75 to 90 minutes
Physical preparation: Emphasize the development and improvement of coordination (general and specific dynamics) through technical training.
Develop resistance force of the flexors, extensors, rotators and fixing joints mainly involved in sporting gestures. This means that now it will work the muscles of the legs and pelvis.
Developing resilience through technical training. You get:
- Sequential movement exercises and decreasing rest intervals between exercises
- In game situations (tactical) or meetings within the session