Basketball Training - Development of Programming Periods
Development of a sports project
Every manager needs to create a sports project for your institution, i.e., have clarity and order in the approach of the objectives, developing its work within a context where everyone knows what they are trying to achieve. The development of a project includes not only sports but also face the social face which includes all persons who constitute the group of basketball, players, parents, subcommittee leaders.
The sports project emerges from an analysis of the situation:
- Human material we have.
- Items available.
- Circumstances of institution.
- Sports training.
Theory and Methodology of Sport Training in academic and scientific content, for many years has been addressing in their publications an aspect that relates different types of sports training, we refer to the fundamental aspects of the preparation of the athlete. This concept has tried to address all those contents that should receive an athlete not only in their annual cycle of preparation, but also during their sporting life.
The aspects of athlete preparation refer to:
- The physical preparation (general and special).
- The technical preparation.
- The tactics.
- The psychological preparation (moral and volitional).
- The theoretical preparation (intellectual).
Which means we have to train?
The training facilities are all activities enjoyed by players to achieve the objectives of planning. The media is formed mainly by physical exercises performed in the practice and competition. We can distinguish two different kinds of media training: specific media and basic media.
Such charges have a full impact on all performance factors. They are the best way to increase the performance of players and teams to stimulate the system under the same conditions that will be required in the competition. Focusing on the physical, specific training is, by itself, the best incentive for improving specific physical qualities.
All those that take place in conditions beyond themselves from the competition. They have a more defined than the specific means, as a factor affecting primarily on performance concrete.
If we refer to the physical qualities related to the physical qualities associated with basketball, which are basically:
- Rate of reaction
- Capacity of acceleration and speed sign (change of pace, direction, etc.).
- Explosive strength, elastic explosive-explosive-elastic reflection
- Resistance to the speed, explosive strength and resistance to medium and long term intermittent efforts, appears that specific stimuli are insufficient to ensure the needs of a seasonal or sporting life of the players.
Be subjected to the same basic charges conditional on taking into account the following:
- The low-intensity aerobic endurance can only be treated with the goal of recovery, or after long periods. Although it should also be considered important to work with players at lower levels, as mini-basket or child.
- Mixed resistance intermittent efforts through media - short films, and changes of pace, is an effective base load, mainly from the cadet category.
- Stimulus strength or high load and maximum are needed to increase energy capacity quickly and to avoid joint injury.
- The specific flexibility is both a quality of performance, and recovery and care to injuries.
On the force, occupies a central place as the most relevant actions are the result of high and very high intensity (movement, throws, jumps and stops, plucked, opposition and contact situations). As for the resistance, the specific work, while ensuring that their own intensity levels of competition, and prolonged stimulation is a very well suited to the specific strength.
Regarding the speed, efficiency does not depend on the ability to move as quickly as possible, but the ability to adjust the speed/rhythm of behavior the game situation. In other words, the speed depends, if they are guaranteed fast mechanisms of energy input-power-factor-informational decision-making and quality of engine settings.
Therefore, the speed in basketball is developed through specific training. The basic training of this quality only aimed at the acquisition of force and improved quality of factors engines.
In general, we can say that as the season progresses the specific means to increase use and decrease the basic means in the same way as we have trained players will need to use more specific means.
General principles to apply when programming:
- The general cargo are not a significant stimulus in the adaptation of the elite athletes, and players do in training. The short preparatory period precludes the proposed adaptive long waves of this type of loads.
- The accumulation of physical burdens of targeting, in short periods of time, causes rapid adaptive effects because they produce complex effects on all performance factors.
- During long periods of competition, the schedules are designed in microstructures, coinciding with the weeks of training in most cases, which group the load steps, competition and recovery in a cyclical and repetitive, with few modifications, throughout the period.
With this burden, ensure maintenance of fitness throughout the season.
In basketball, the periodization of the season usually occurs in the following phases:
Prior to the start of the competition, relatively short, which primary objective is to acquire the level of individual and collective adaptation to allow entry to expected return.
Very long period whose objectives are specified in the maintenance and optimization of fitness to achieve expected yields.
* TRANSITION OR ACTIVE BREAK
Oriented toward recovery from the effects of competition.
The preseason is the period before the start of the competition, lasting between 6 and 9 weeks, whose objectives are to:
- Achieve a high level of team performance at the start of the season.
- Acquire a state basis that would meet the needs of team play.
- Continue the process of development of individual players.
What considerations must be taken in the preseason?
The more experienced players, due to adaptation processes in the long term, do not need or general cargo or long periods of adaptation. Young players have a greater readiness to submit to burdens more generally consistent with their development needs.
The physical qualities to work during the preseason will be mostly organic resistance, flexibility, strength, endurance, maximum strength, factors of speed, coordination, balance and agility. As we progress in the preseason we focus exclusively on the specific resistance, fast and explosive strength and speed.
The preseason can be divided into the following periods:
- FIRST 3 or 4 days, its objective is to initiate biological adaptations to training loads. The charges are essentially physical-oriented aerobic endurance, strength endurance (circuit, Forwarder, global exercises) and flexibility.
- Second period (4-5 weeks of training)
The objectives of this period focus on:
- Know the objectives, strategies and the basic tactics of the team.
- Purchase / retrieve specific motor patterns and their settings.
- Acquiring adaptive or specific physical level required for each sport.
- Acquire the conditional reserve for the competitive season.
The means used are basic and specific, with a higher frequency of the former over the latter. Throughout this period dominated by the volume on the intensity. TECHNIQUE: basic loads are common. They are used as a contrast and transfer charges related to the physical demands and is part of the largest warm-ups.
PHYSICAL CONDITION: in basketball, we see a clear trend towards the manifestations of rapid force:
- Demonstrations of force or occupy most of his team's physical orientation.
- In the case of basic equipment, such as cadets, the work force will be primarily directed towards development of muscular endurance, work-force resistance. For even lower level teams, the work undertaken with great precaution and will not be a priority.
- The majority of the loads are directed towards the lower body, since they tend to bear most competitive conduct.
- Loads of force or evolve, within the range proposed, first to an increase in the magnitude of the mass to move, trying to maintain minimum speed, and then move to lessen the burden and increase the speed, approaching the structure movement of the competition.
- The basic charges of strength is complemented by the technical work, so that will acquire the necessary adjustments to the movements of the competition.
Regarding the resistance loads, their design has the following characteristics:
- Non-specific charges for the improvement of the resistance are few, and the exercises should be structured similarly to the internal logic of basketball. In general, the exercises are of intensity variable (medium-high and high), interval of short duration and short breaks.
- Exercises to improve specific motor skills, especially the displacement and the combination with other elements, are an excellent stimulus for resistance.
- Specific charges are clearly the best proposal for the improvement of specific resistance and delayed onset of fatigue.
- Evolution resistance loads automatically occurs by the growth of specific charges in the second part of this period and the disappearance of basic charges.
- In the case of core teams with players in training, we extend further the development of resistance.
The specific charges so frequent and of shorter duration in the first 2-3 weeks, moving to a higher frequency and longer in the last 2 weeks. In this second phase, specific loads are larger than their own volume of competition to stimulate the mechanisms that delay the onset of specific fatigue.
In the last part of this period, should the holding of a competitive game, even under conditions of accumulated fatigue, allowing implementation of the apprenticeship, and assess the degree of their effectiveness.
This period of 2-3 weeks, is intended to align the acquired individual adaptations to the needs of the competition, achieve the level of team play and acquire the load inertia, competition and recovery characteristic of competitive period. This set of objectives is achieved through a modification of the magnitudes of the load, such as:
- Decrease the overall volume of work.
- Decrease in basic charges and growth in specific.
- The basic charges are aimed principally at the strength in themselves manifestations of the competition, focusing on component of the velocity (speed in achieving competitive behavior is a complex quality, resulting from the actions of other factors performance, so its best stimulus occurs in specific training).
- Are made more competitive matches to adjust the relations of the complex factors and performance evaluation.
The scheduling of the loads requires a prior analysis of the calendar, the competition system, the various competitions in which we participate, breaks competitive. This analysis allows the selection of the highlights of the season that require a higher level of performance and those other phases of competition less relevant. Loads need to be structured into small units of scheduling, which are repeated in a similar way throughout the whole period. The curve of intensity and volume will fluctuate with the aim of obtaining the maximum times of how political parties that most interest us. The physical qualities characteristic of this period are virtually the same as those employed at end of the preseason: specific resistance, strength, quick, explosive strength and speed.
The circumstances that arise throughout the season are many. Anyway will post the most common:
- When one or two, there is no competition, apart from providing a day of rest, we must use to develop intense sessions from the physical standpoint, especially explosive strength, elastic-explosive and endurance, to ensure maintenance of standards effective demonstrations of the competition.
- fewer players participating in the competition may increase charges in order to enhance individual development.
- Sporadically or modify the basic structure of the week, has positive effects on group dynamics and psychological factors of the players.
- As the season progresses, improving basic charges disappear, remaining only the specific charges, of intensity itself, and recovery.