The problem of unemployment is the most serious problem facing our country. A large number of educated and uneducated people loiter about in search of some job. They are willing to work but they cannot get it. There is unemployment in cities, towns and even in villages. There are two types of unemployment in India : partial unemployment and full time unemployment.
There are many causes of unemployment in India. The greatest cause of unemployment is the overpopulation of the country. The population of the country is increasing fast but the jobs cannot be increased in that proportion. So a large number of people remain unemployed. Another cause of unemployment in our defective system of education. The present education is bookish. It should be job-oriented. It does not prepare students for life. Every young man of today is suitable only for a white collar job.
At the completion of education, students dream of Govt. jobs, they rush for Govt. jobs. They are least interested in self-employment because some of the youth see more respect, glamour and comfort in jobs while some seek challenges in jobs. Prevailing corruption in our society is also one of the cause of unemployment. Machines are also responsible for the problem of unemployment. The machines are labour-saving device. These machines throw thousands of persons out of work. People rush to cities in search of employment. The result is that the cottage industries which provide employment to many, are impaired. Gandhiji warned the people against industrialization, "India needs not mass production but production by the masses."
There should be a check on the rapid growth of population. The program of family planning should be made more popular in rural areas. All efforts should be made in this direction. The system of education should be changed. Importance should be given to technical and vocational education. Education should be sound and practical. Government should create more jobs for the educated unemployment.
Cottage and small-scale industries should be developed. We should lessen the use of labour-saving machines. Banks should advance loans to the youths to set up small industries. Luckily our government is fully alive to this problem. Technical and vocational colleges are being opened. Cottage and handloom industries are being encouraged. Efforts to control population are being made. Irrigation and other multi-purpose projects are increasing. These steps will help a lot in solving the problem of unemployment.
An empty mind is the devil's workshop. An unemployment person is a nuisance to the society. A hungry man can do any wrong. Therefore, it is the duty of the government to solve the problem of unemployment as early as possible. Government should encourage policies of self-employment. In this regard govt. policies should be liberalized.