Elections have become a part and parcel of modern life. They show that every modern government and the opposition consist of the representative parliament. Since all the people cannot have a direct hand in governing themselves, they elect their representatives to govern them.
An election commission is set up to fix the date of election, to assign emblems to the different political parties contesting in the elections, to make all arrangements for the smooth conduct of elections and to take action against malpractices in the elections. Every citizen of India who was 21 or above 21 years old was eligible to vote. The age limit for voting now is 18. Mad people and criminals are not allowed to vote. The state government appoints people to visit every family and record the particulars related to every member of the family. From the record the total number of votes in each constituency is found out.
Every state is divided into constituencies or small zones on the basis of the minimum population strength required. From each constituency one member for the state legislative assembly and from a bigger zone one member for the parliament should be elected.
Each political party selects suitable candidates to contest in the election. The candidates file their nominations on or before a fixed date before an officer appointed for the purpose. Withdrawals are allowed up-to a certain date. A fixed sum is to be paid by each contesting candidate to get his name registered.
The political parties arrange for political meetings in public places and explain their election manifestoes to the voters. They also publish them in the form of pamphlets . They use the radio and the television to explain their politics to the voters. The candidate, to whatever political party he belongs, appeals to the voters to elect him so that he may serve them for a term. independent candidates who do not belong to any registered political party are also allowed to contest provided that they are respectable men with the required qualifications.
One day before the election-day all political meetings and canvassing for votes are stopped. The voters are given time to think. On the next day they go to the polling booths and cast their votes in the prescribed manner to the candidates of their choice. On the thumb of everyone who cast his vote a mark with an indelible ink is made so that he may not come again to vote on his own or on an absentee voters’ behalf. Police officers and police officials maintain discipline the polling booths and in the streets.
Voting starts at 8 a.m and ends at 4 p.m. The ballot boxes are sealed and sent to the counting centers. The counting of votes reveals the number of votes gained by each candidate, the winners and the political party that get the majority of seats to form the state ministry of the state government. The leader becomes chief minister of the state and he selects his minister colleagues from among the winners in the election belonging to his party. The president of india asks the leader of the majority party to form the central government and appoints him as prime minister of India. The leader selects his minister-colleagues from among his party-men who have won in the election. The other winners become the opposition parties one in the state assembly and the other in the parliament.
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