Structure Of Atom

Atom:Atom is the smallest particle of an element which is indestructible means atom can't be broken into parts. Atom is the entity which takes part in chemical reactions to produce compounds.In early time people assume that atom can not be dissociated . but it is not true atom can be dissociated into smaller particles.

Components of Atom:Atom mainly consist of three components:-Proton,Neutron and electron

Proton:Proton was invented by scientist named Goldstein. Proton is a particle carrying one unit positive charge and its mass is equal to the mass of Hydrogen atom. Protons lie in the central part of an atom.Number of protons present in the nucleus of an atom is called its atomic number. For example atomic number of copper is 29. it means there are 29 protons are present in the nucleus of copper atom.Protons are the particles responsible to bound the subatomic particles of atom within its bounds.Like due to attraction of protons ,neutrons remain in the nucleus and electrons remain in their orbits. These particles cannot accede their bounds by themselves.

Neutron: Neutron was invented by Chadwick .Neutron is a subatomic particle carrying no charge and mass equals to Hydrogen atom. Like proton ,neutron also lie inside the nucleus of atom. Protons and neutrons are attracted by strong internuclear forces. Except Hydrogen,neutrons are present in all atoms. Hydrogen is an atom in which there is only one proton.Neutrons are widely used in carrying out nuclear reactions . Neutrons are used in nuclear reactors for bombardment on fuels to emit radiations. As neutron hits an alpha particle it dissociates it into hydrogen atoms and huge amount of energy is released during splitting process of nucleus.

Electron: Electron is the subatomic particle carrying one unit negative charge and mass equals to 1/1836 units of Hydrogen.Electron was invented by J.J Thomsan.Electron moves around the nucleus in an orbit.Electrons are attracted towards the nucleus by strong internuclear attraction of protons.Number of electrons present in an atom is equal to number of protons. As electrons carry negative charge and protons carry positive charge .Positive charge is always equal to negative charge to make atom neutral means atom has not carry any charge.

In the above we have read a word nucleus many times.Let see what the nucleus is in actual?

Nucleus is the central part of an atom.Nucleus is the heaviest and denser part of an atom as it carries heavy particles like protons and neutrons within it. Size of the nucleus is much smaller as compare to size of atom. If the radius of atom is 10^-10 meter then radius of nucleus is 10^-15 meter.Rutherford had described in his experiment that in an atom there is a place which is more denser than atom and there is huge amount of positive charge is accumulated. He named this region as nucleus.

Protons and neutrons are collectively called nucleons as they reside inside the nucleus.

Now lets have a small view on nuclear reactions

Nuclear Reactions:Nuclear reactions are the reactions carried out between nucleons of atoms.These are mainly of two types as follows:

Fission Reaction:When a big atom is dissociated into two or more small atoms . it is called fusion reaction. Large amount of energy and two or more neutrons are released during the completion of this reaction.For example uranium atom is split up into two small atoms barium and krypton and three neutrons are produced in his reaction.

Fusion Reaction:When two small atoms are combined to form a big atom in a reaction.It is called Nuclear fusion. Energy released in fusion reaction is far more than energy released in nuclear fission.For example energy of Sun is the result of nuclear fusion reaction .In Sun two hydrogen atoms are combined at high temperature and high pressure to produce Helium atom and energy released in this process is the source of energy of Sun.


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