Impact of Technology
Technology is the application of knowledge to achieve practical ends. Includes physical manifestations as machines and tools, but also intellectual and technical processes used to solve problems and achieve desired results.
An example is the computer represents an aspect of technology or software programs but is equally important.
Impact of Technology on the Organization
For organizational technology means the set of techniques used in transforming inputs into outputs.
Technology applicable to all organizations.
The technology is easy to understand in a physical transformation process, as in an assembly line, but is also suitable for other organizations, such as a hospital or a university.
It builds on the knowledge and equipment used to perform tasks.
Subsequent to the types of inputs and outputs of the system to reach the organization.
Impact of Technology on the Structure
Concept of Structure: Create a formal outline and determines how tasks are performed.
Many scholars have focused specifically on the relationship between technology and organizational structure. Joan Woodward and her colleagues conducted a broad investigation of 100 industrial firms in England. The researcher divided into three companies, based on differences in technology.
This resulted in the number of vertical levels of management in the departments of direct production increased with relative size of its management group.
A similar study by Woodward, by Zwerman, who used 56 companies in the Minneapolis area, generally corroborated the initial results.
A series of studies by the Research Unit in industrial management from the University of Aston, England, provided information on the relationship between technology and structure. Technology classified into three components. Operational technology is the technique used in the workflow activities. The materials technology refers to the nature of the materials used in the transformation process. The technology of knowledge concerning the characteristics of knowledge used in the organization.
Aston Group found that operating technology had no great effect on the structural relationships, except for those structural variables which were centered in the workflow. They concluded that the operational technology revealed structural variables affect only those directly linked to workflow. Technology is a primary determinant of the structure on the production line.
However, we must remember that the Aston study analyzed only the "operational technology. It is likely that these two components of the technology would have an effect on all levels of the structure.
These various studies suggest that the relationship between technology and structure are complex.
Other points of the structure that affected the technology
The technology has not only eliminated many routine jobs, but has restructured the tasks of other workers and requires changes in attitude and behavior.
Impact of Technology on Psychosocial System
The traditional theory of the administration almost did not take into account how the technology affected the psychosocial system. The technical system was considered as given and unchanging, and it was assumed that people would adapt. Fortunately, humans are adaptable and have responded to rapidly changing technology. The technological leadership of complex organizations in the past 100 years have necessitated major adjustments of social systems. The techniques of bureaucracy, scientific management and mass production required fundamental changes. The latest developments in automation and computers today have an important effect, however little has been studied the relationship between technology and psychosocial systems.
Haire says about it: our industrial production plans are created to use the technique of production, machine characteristics and qualities of the material at its peak. The operator is considered as a dependent variable. They are expected to adapt and adjust. It is interesting to speculate what would happen if we will deal to create a production line designed to maximize Human Resources and motivations of the operations of the operators. And then consider the machine as to conform to the requirements of a system designed to maximize human potential.
The technology relates to members of organizations in various ways. It is a key factor in determining the tasks required and the degree of specialization. Often determines the size and composition of immediate work group and the range of contacts with other workers and supervisors. Often determines the degree of physical mobility. It affects various functions and positions of individuals in organizations: generally have higher technical skills means getting a better position, more pay and other rewards. Includes more on identifying the specific design of the work of each employee. The technology, particularly in mass production operations, imposes a time dimension to the workers. Requires timely to start the process and set a certain pace.
Technological change could create uncertainty and anxiety in employment and workers. The skills developed over a period might be obsolete, which vitally affects their self-perception and motivation.
Impact of Technology on Administrative System
One of the main consequences of changing technology has been the increasing specialization of knowledge. The administrative system in most organizations, including many participants with skills and training opportunities. Many specialists with appropriate training in management positions are: research and development, communications experts and industrial psychologists and sociologists.
The modern administrative system is composed of a single person who has knowledge and absolute power, is formed by a team of trained specialists who contribute their skills to the good performance of the organization. Typically these are the "catalysts" that help the organization to use and adapt new technological advances.
Impact of Technology in Automation
The technologies of computers and other relations with them are having a major impact on all levels of organizations. At the operational level, automation, numerically controlled machines, industrial robots and flexible manufacturing systems are examples of this technology. Automation represents the current phase of a long-term trend toward greater complexity and modernization of technological systems for the production of goods.
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