On earth


The part of the earth consisting of the crust and the solid outermost layer of the upper mantle is called lithosphere. In other words, lithosphere refers to the top crust of the earth on which our continents, countries and the ocean basins res.

1) layers of the earth: There are three layers in the earth they are

a) crust

b) mantle and

c) core

They differ in respect of specific gravity, thickness and physical and chemical composition materials. Temperature increases at the rate 1cillies degree foe every 32 meters in the interior of the earth. It is estimated that the temperature of the center of the earth will be around 6000cilies degree.

2) Rocks: Rocks are the main materials composing the earth’s crust. They are composed of minerals. Rocks of the earth’s crust are grouped into three principals classes namely lgneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks.

3) Mountain: A land mass with a large height is called a mountain. Mountain is generally above 900 meters high.

4) Hill: A land mass with a height less than 900 meters is called a hill.

5) Plateau: A plateau is high land mass that stands very high from the sea level with almost a flat surface.

6) Plain: A plain is a broad, flat area land or one that is almost features. Generally a plain is an area of low elevation. .

7) Volcano: A volcano is a hill having a funnel shaped opening from which lava comes out.

8) Continent: A continent is a vast mass of land. It is one of the seven major unbroken land masses of the earth.

9) Rift valley: A rift valley is a long and narrow valley formed by the sinking of portion of the earth.

10) Peak: A peak is mountain summit usually formed by the erosion of the surrounding racks.

11) Pass: A pass is a narrow way through or over a mountain barrier. It is usually the result of erosion.

12) Dune: Dune is hill or mound of sand formed by the wind blowing over beaches or deserts.




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