The word “forensic” denotes the scientific methods and techniques of investigating crime. It plays a major role in identifying the criminals involved in heinous crime, such as murder and sexual assaults through DNA profiling techniques, forensic analysis of bomb blast clues, identifying the involvement of particular firearms in commission of crime and handling any type of ballistic related crimes, identifying the drugs of abuse under NDFS Act, investigating crimes against women ( bride burning cases)

The basic duty of forensic scientists is to examine the samples of evidence in the laboratory using microscopes, infrared rays and ultraviolet rays etc. to detect the cause of crime. Their examination involves identification of blood, semen and other fluids, blood grouping of dried stains and the use of DNA profiling to compare samples, analysis of blood and urine samples for their drugs or alcohol content in driving offences etc.

There are different specialists who work in their area of specialization to co-ordinate in this activity. For example, a forensic pathologist, after postmortem examination, reveals the cause of death. After examining the dead body, a pathologist co-relates the injury and the type of weapon used to kill the person. They are from a medical background. Forensic toxicologist identifies chemicals, drugs, poison used against the victim.

Forensic psychiatrists are responsible for the mental soundness of the criminal. They conduct several tests o detect the root cause of the crime. There are several other specialists who assist in the crime detection. A Forensic Microbiologist trace the biological evidence of a case whereas a Forensic Odontologist contributes on the basis of dental records. Forensic finger print experts identify the fingerprint sample on the basis of DNA Test. Forensic Anthropologists, based o their knowledge and technique, help n identification and cause of death of skeletal remains.

To be a forensic pathologist candidates should have MBBS degree followed by MD in forensic medicine. Candidates willing to go for research work after M.Sc may pursue Ph.D programme offered by AIIMS. Minimum qualification for finger print experts is or Ph.D in Forensic Science/Genetics/Molecular Biology. In the area of forensic toxicology M.Sc or Ph.D in toxicology or MBBS is required. A Forensic Anthropologist holds a Ph.D degree in physical biological anthropology.


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