It is seen that in case of certain patients heart attack occurs and they don't even come to know about it. This kind of attack is called as silent attack. Similarly, there are a few heart patients who are either not aware of such diseases or do not come to know about their condition. But, these kind of cases are very rare. There are certain signs and symptoms seen in case of heart diseases and heart attack. On basis on these signs and symptoms person comes to know about his condition.

Following symptoms are seen in case of heart diseases:-

  • Pain in chest:-

Before an attack of heart, patient all of a sudden experiences pain in chest. This kind of pain is different in case of different individuals i.e., it varies from one person to another. In some patients, pain occurs exactly in the middle portion of the chest and in other patients pain develops in the middle portion of back. This pain spreads in other parts of the body too. There are a few patients who experience pain during running, bathing, losing temper etc..... Pain in chest lasts for certain minutes to an hour in duration.

  • Pain in left arm:-

Patients who have complain of heart disease often experience pain in the left arm. This pain in the left arm vibrates in the form of waves.

  • Sweating:-

After a heart attack, patient sweats profusely and their body turns cold. In such conditions, patient should immediately be taken to doctor.

  • Weakness:-

Heart patient is aware of his weakness. His working efficiency decreases. He experiences pain after any sort of work he does. In such conditions, patient should go for heart check up. In case of heart patient, blood flow in hands and limbs is very less. Thus, he experiences weakness.

  • Breathlessness:-

It is commonly seen that patients suffering from heart disease when subjected to physical work of little severe form will show a sign of breathlessness. They need to take deep breaths while walking, while climbing stairs and even while performing exercises. If person experiences fullness in breath, he should immediately go for health check up.

  • Vomiting:-

It is seen that during heart attack, patient experiences vomiting.

  • Swelling of limbs:-

Individuals who have complain of heart disease, often experiences swelling in limbs. Early morning, no sign of swelling is seen. Later in the day, swelling develops.

  • Difficulty in lying down in straight position:-

Heart patient often experiences difficulty in lying down in straight position on bed. He feels fullness in breath. Many pillows have to be placed beneath his head and shoulders.

  • Body parts turning blue:-

It is often seen that lips, skin, nails of patients suffering from heart diseases turn blue. Reason behind it is blood does not reach these parts in adequate amount.

  • Accumulation of fluid:-

In heart disease patient, fluid accumulates in stomach, lungs and body.

  • Uneasiness:-

Patients suffering from heart disease suffer from uneasiness during bed time.

  • Increased heart beat:-

Increased heart beat makes person think that he is suffering from heart disease. In actual terms, increased heart beat is not a sign of any serious disorder. But, repeated increase of heart beat might be a sign of heart disease. For this, doctor's advice is very essential.

  • Headache:-

Intermediate headache can be considered as a sign of high blood pressure. By measuring blood pressure one can come to know about his condition.

  • Throat infection:-

It can occur in case of rheumatic fever. This fever can result in heart diseases.

  • Excessive urination:-

Excessive urination occurs in case of kidney disorders or due to diabetes. Kidneys can get affected from high blood pressure. High blood pressure can result in any type of heart disease.

Feeling of excessive cold:-

Obstruction in blood flow or disorder in blood circulation can result in inadequate supply of blood to hands and limbs. Thus, feet and palms always remain cold. Constriction of blood vessels result in inadequate blood flow. Doctor's guidance is necessary in such conditions.

Apart from these symptoms, severe itching in skin, tiredness etc..... may also result due to heart disease.


Heart diseases are of many types. For example:-

  • Natal heart diseases,
  • Diseases associated with valve of the heart,
  • Heart diseases due to underlying causes,
  • Pulmonary disease of heart,
  • Heart disease due to high blood pressure,
  • Abnormal sounds of heart,
  • Increased heart beats,
  • Angina,
  • Coronary heart disease,
  • Increase in heart size,
  • Miscellaneous heart diseases

Natal heart diseases:-

Natal heart diseases are one which develop due to certain deficiencies during pregnancy, due to side effects of medicines or due to hereditary factors. Many infants are born with the heart disorders. Few kids are born with defect in aortic valve. Treatment of aortic valve if done during initial stages is not difficult but if left untreated then treatment becomes difficult. In few kids, either on left or right chamber a tiny hole may be present in heart. In such disorder blood flow is more towards lungs rather than reaching in equal amounts throughout the body. If lungs are supplied with excessive amount of blood, within short time some disorder will develop in them too. This disorder has to be treated quite early. Wall between the two atrium may also contain a hole. This is also a birth disorder. This can be treated with surgery.

Sometimes, birth related heart disorders can become quite dangerous. For example:- Along with septum defect, pulmonary valve constriction may develop. This will result in decreased blood supply to lungs. This will cause deficiency of oxygen in blood and skin of body starts turning blue. This condition is known as sinosis. This disorder can be treated with surgery. However, even after surgery it cannot be claimed that condition will get corrected completely. In certain kids, there may be defect in muscles of the heart. Muscles of heart in such kids do not maintain uniform thickness. It is seen that 1% new born babies suffer from one or the other birth-related heart disorders.

Pregnant women should take following precautions to prevent birth-related heart disorders in their babies.

  • Pregnant ladies should not smoke.
  • They should avoid alcohol.
  • They should protect themselves from German Measles.
  • They should not take medicines like thalidomide at least in their first trimester of pregnancy.

Diseases associated with valve of the heart:-

Diseases associated with valve of the heart either can develop before birth or after birth. Rheumatic fever is the main cause for it. This fever results in swelling of internal organs. Duration of rheumatic fever lasts from certain weeks to certain months. This will cause defect in valves of the heart. It exerts excessive ill-effects on mitral valve.

Surgery is beneficial to treat valve related heart disorders. After operation, patient can spend a normal life for quite long years. In India, number of these kind of patients are more. If a constriction is formed either in mitral valve or pulmonary arterial valve then heart does not get operated during surgery. Heart undergo surgical operation if valve has to be replaced or if cause is not known. One thing that has to be taken care of is that after operation of valve, both heart and valve works efficiently but there is always a risk of infection to heart valve. Thus, heart patients should go to their specialist for regular check-up.

Heart disease due to underlying causes:-

Heart diseases due to underlying causes are of two types. First type is which occurs as an influence of disorders of other body organs. Some of them are infection, malnutrition, disorders of thyroid gland, disorders of adrenal gland etc..... Ingestion of some poisonous substances can also result in heart diseases. People who have been drinking alcohol since long time may suffer from it.

Second type of heart disease is one where causes are not known. In certain individuals, it occurs due to hereditary factors. It runs in family from one generation to another. In some patients heart weakens, in other patients it works excessively. Reason is not known and thus surgery is done the way it is done when causes are not known.

Pulmonary disease of heart:-

Heart and lungs are closely related to each other. Lungs filter the blood. Lung disorders can exert ill-effects on heart. Pulmonary artery carries blood from heart to lungs. If it gets obstructed then excessive load is experienced by right chamber of the heart. This can also result in heart attack. Reason behind this is blood clot that gets formed in the blood vessels supplying limbs and hips. This blood clot travels and reaches pulmonary artery. In such condition, with the help of medicine or surgery, blood clot can be removed.

Another cause for heart disease is asthma. In asthma, fine blood vessels of lungs swell. As a result, lungs cannot incorporate oxygen adequately in blood. In the whole body oxygen deficiency develops and patient experiences difficulty in breathing. Its direct effect is seen on heart. Oxygen deficiency causes increase in hemoglobin content in blood which will cause blood to thicken. Heart needs to work a lot to pump thick blood. This can result in heart attack.

Heart disease due to high blood pressure:-

Increase in the blood pressure level in body is very dangerous to heart. Heart needs to put some extra effort to pump blood and this will exert excess of pressure on heart. High blood pressure can produce its harmful effects on heart, kidneys and brain. It also results in myocardial infection. Thus, to keep heart healthy it is important to keep blood pressure under control.

Abnormal sounds of heart:-

In case of certain individuals, strange, abnormal sounds are heard from heart which doctor can diagnose within few seconds with the help of stethoscope. Patient does not come to know about his abnormality. These sounds can also be produced from normal heart. In very few patients, abnormality of sound can be a cause of certain heart diseases.

Increased heart beats:-

It is seen that in case of certain individuals, heart beats very quickly. This increased beat can be experienced by the person itself. This disorder develops in case of physical weakness as well as in excessive consumption of tea, coffee, cigarette, alcohol etc..... This disorder also develops in case of deficiency of blood. Heart of the patient beats very rapidly. Heart beat also increases in case of fear, tension, stress etc..... Doctors do not consider it as heart disorder. However, if the heart beats remain increased for prolonged duration then it can be regarded as a disorder.


Pain developing in the heart is known as angina. This pain occurs due to ill-condition of heart. In this disease, pain develops in right arm in the form of waves. This pain initiates in heart. It then travels through chest, back of the neck, left arm and fingers. Patient becomes restless in this disease. He experiences difficulty in breathing. This pain initiates at severe rate and at a quick pace and then gradually slows down. Duration of pain lasts from few seconds to a long time.

Coronary heart disease:-

Coronary artery fulfills all the blood necessities of heart. It branches out from aorta and supplies blood to all body organs. Since heart has to work out constantly, thus it requires more amount of blood. If blood vessels supplying heart get affected from any disorder then person also get affected from disorder of coronary artery. If heart does not receive sufficient amount of blood and oxygen then angina pain develops in it. This condition is called as ischemia. On taking proper rest, this pain disappears. This is because in the state of rest, heart's requirement of blood and oxygen decreases. If any blockage is formed in coronary artery then muscles of heart do not receive adequate amount of blood and thus ischemic condition persists. This disease is known as ischemic heart disease.

Due to blockage in coronary artery, part of the heart does not receive blood. Muscles of that particular part dies. In this way, part of the heart totally becomes functionless. This condition is known as heart attack. In medical terms, it is known as myocardial infection or myocardial thrombosis.

In certain heart patients, inner wall of coronary artery gets deposited with fat rich oily entities. This fat accumulation constricts the opening of the artery. This causes obstruction in blood flow and also decreases the blood flow. Fatty products deposited is called as cholesterol. This occurs on consumption of excessive fat rich diet and on spending lazy, relaxed life without any physical work. This disease is known as atherosclerosis. The more the amount of cholesterol get deposited, the more constricted artery will result into and will also turn into rigid form. Artery when nears the blockage, person will be at high risk of getting a heart attack. Sometimes, cholesterol deposited gets separated from the area of deposition and gets carried along with blood flow. If it gets stuck in any area of coronary artery then person gets a heart attack. This condition is known as embolism.

Diseases of coronary artery are quite dangerous. Smoking increases the incidence of coronary artery diseases. Diabetes, high blood pressure, increased cholesterol level, obesity are all responsible for coronary artery disease. All these factors can increase cholesterol level in the blood and thus should be regulated by taking proper measures. Due to coronary artery disorder, patient may suffer from a heart attack. This heart attack can be either mild or even severe in form. It is not at all necessary that before heart attack, patient will show any sort of symptoms. However, commonly seen symptoms in heart attack are severe pain in the left side of the chest, experience of load on chest, experience of pain migrating from shoulders to back of the neck and further to hands, vomiting, restlessness, excessive sweating etc..... Heart diseases due to coronary artery disorders are commonly treated with bypass surgery or balloon angioplasty. 

Increase in heart size:-

It is seen that in case of certain individuals, size of the heart increases. This usually occurs in individuals who do lots of physical work like sports persons, wrestlers, laborers etc..... Thus, increase in heart size is not considered as heart disease. Increased heart size can be diagnosed by echocardiography.

Miscellaneous heart diseases:-

Sometimes, all of a sudden heart stops beating and blood supply to the brain stops. In such condition, through mouth to mouth respiration, patient can be saved and his heart will start functioning again.

When kidneys get affected from some disease or disorder, patients blood pressure increases. Increased blood pressure exerts direct effect on heart. High blood pressure exerts effects on small and thin blood vessels of kidney. High blood pressure also impart ill-effects on brain and eyes. High blood pressure is actually responsible for many diseases of heart.

In certain heart patients, there is a hole in the septum. This hole can be treated with surgical treatment. This type of disease is known as septal defect. In some patients, opening of the valve of the heart gets constricted. Usually this occurs in left atrium and left ventricular valves. This develops due to rheumatic fever and this condition is known as mitral stenosis. In few patients, aorta in some places gets constricted or narrows down. This is birth related disorder. This can be treated through surgical treatment.


Normal check-up of heart:-

Medical specialists make use of stethoscope before subjecting heart patients to various complicated diagnosis. Along with this, they also record medical history of the patient. Stethoscope enables doctor to know whether heart beat is normal or increased. It also enables to know whether there is any obstruction in heart beat or no. Doctor through sphygmomanometer measures blood pressure of the patient. Increased blood pressure can be dangerous to heart. Stethoscope can also help to diagnose the size of the heart. When heart increases in size, it deviates little from its position. A peculiar sound can be heard from stethoscope which develops on closure of valve. On opening of disordered valve, another additional sound gets heard. Also on constriction of valve a special sound is heard. These additional sounds are called as murmur.

Blood tests also give information related to heart diseases. Decreased hemoglobin in blood changes skin color to blue. Doctors by looking at patients nails can diagnose whether they are suffering from heart disease or no. Diagnosis of cholesterol content in blood is also very essential. Swelling of limbs and feet is another diagnostic feature which helps to detect heart diseases. In this way, if normal routine check-up shows signs of abnormality then following tests are asked to perform on patient.

  • Electrocardiography (E.C.G.),
  • Echocardiography,
  • Angiography,
  • Thallium stress test,
  • X-ray,
  • Phlebography

Electrocardiography (E.C.G.):-

Electrocardiography is an effective method to diagnose heart diseases. It is a method which shows diagrammatical representation of heart beats in the form of electrical waves. Each and every part of heart in which blood flows make their own separate pattern of electrical waves. These waves can be recorded by a machine. It is known as electrocardiogram.

To obtain diagrammatical wave representation, a small machine is brought near patient. To obtain E.C.G., area near heart and on certain body parts electrodes are placed which are then connected with machine. This machine contains chart recorder. Electrodes are placed on both the hands, legs and on chest. When machine is started, pen chart records electrical waves on paper. This is studied by heart specialist and identifies the health of the heart. Through E.C.G. heart specialists identifies following things:-

  • Whether heart beat is normal or abnormal,
  • Is flow of electric waves in heart proper or improper,
  • Did heart face an attack previously or not,

Based on these diagnosis, heart specialist concludes the condition of heart.

E.C.G. is done in 3 ways:-

  1. E.C.G. in rest position,
  2. Stress or treadmill E.C.G.
  3. Holtar E.C.G.

E.C.G. in rest position:-

This kind of E.C.G requires 20-25 minutes duration. Patient is made to lye down on bed. Electrodes are placed on chest, hands and limbs. Machine is made on and E.C.G. is recorded. Its study enables the doctor to diagnose the condition of patients heart.

Stress or treadmill E.C.G.:-

In this method, patient needs to work out. Patient is asked to walk on treadmill. Nine electrodes are placed around heart. These electrodes are connected with computer machine. Patient is asked to walk on treadmill which is run by motor. Gradually its speed is increased. Machine calculates effects produced on heart due to exercise performed by the patient. Exercise increases heart beats along with demand of oxygen. When heart does not receive blood quantity as per its requirements then this condition is known as ischemia. Treadmill test enables to know blood flow efficiency of arteries. This test helps to know the work load or stress withstanding power of the patient. While performing this test, certain dangerous situations may arrive. Thus, diagnosis has to be done under the supervision of doctor. While the test is been carried out doctor keeps asking patient whether he is becoming restless or developing any type of pain in the heart. Stress test is very important to determine whether heart is in normal position or has turned abnormal due to any disorder or disease.

Holtar E.C.G.:-

Sometimes for heart patients, specialists recommend this kind of E.C.G. as they feel it is essential to give the patient E.C.G. for 24 hours. This determines the condition of his heart while he sleeps, wakes up, carries out various daily tasks etc..... For this kind of E.C.G., five electrodes are placed nearby patients heart. In a small portable box, tape recorder is fixed. The tape of the tape recorder records heart fluctuations that occurs in the period of 24 hours. Through this E.C.G., fluctuations in the heart beat, disappearance of any heart beat, increase or decrease of any heart beat etc..... can be recorded. After 24 hours, tape is removed from tape recorder and studied through computer. After proper diagnosis, treatment can be planned and done.


Echocardiography is very essential and important to get information regarding heart diseases. In this method, ultrasonic sound waves are sent in the body. These waves after making an obstruction on heart and arteries, return back. They are then represented on monitor of a camera. It helps to identify constriction and dilation process of heart, dissimilarities of the valves, size of the heart, beats and other sounds produced by heart, accumulation of fluid in heart and lungs etc..... This test is neither very expensive nor the patient faces any sort of discomfort in it. In this test, echo specialist requires a time duration of 15 to 30 minutes.


In this test, x-rays of arteries and its branches are taken to identify any sort of internal bleeding or obstruction of blood flow in arteries. It also determines fat deposition in arteries. Patient is made to lye down. Catheter is introduced in artery of either hand or limb. Injection of dye is given. This dye is opaque to x-rays. This x-ray of body is done with the help of fluoroscope. By this doctor can diagnose the amount of blood in the coronary artery supplying heart.

This test is very useful for bypass surgery. Within a duration of 15 to 20 minutes, angiography can be completed. Patient need not be made unconscious during this test. Area around artery in which catheter will be inserted is given local anesthesia.This test is quite expensive. This test is not very dangerous if precautions are taken completely.

Thallium stress test:-

Patient is made to lye on a bed during this test. This bed is accompanied with facilities of carrying out light physical exercises. Usually, bed is attached with a cycle. Patient runs this cycle in his lying position itself. When he starts feeling tired, thallium product is injected in his arms. This product travels and settles in that part of the heart where blood is not reaching in adequate level. With the help of a special camera at regular interval, photos of heart are clicked. On studying these photos, specialists can diagnose the areas of the heart where blood is not reaching properly.

The product injected is usually harmful to the body. However, in this test it does not prove harmful, as very little amount is injected in the body. This test also identifies the hole in the heart.


With the help of x-ray report of heart too certain diseases can be diagnosed. Since heart is a muscle, its X-ray report does not appear very clear. However, radiologists looking at the blurred X-ray itself can determine whether there is an increase in the size of the heart along with the areas of fluid accumulation. X-rays also shows calcium deposition in the main blood vessels of the heart.


In this test, patient is given injection of a dye. X-rays of patients hands and limbs are taken. These X-ray reports of patients are used to study the obstruction of blood flow that occurs in the blood vessels. This study helps a surgeon to come to a conclusion that which artery of the patient should be used for by pass surgery.

Some other methods to diagnose heart diseases are:-

Blood tests:-

Blood is withdrawn from the body of the patient and is sent for following tests:-


In diagnosis of anemia, hemoglobin level in blood is know. Number of R.B.C's, W.B.Cs etc..... is known. Hemoglobin diagnosis enables doctor to identify whether a person is healthy or no. Deficiency in blood results in decreased blood supply to the heart and thus risk of angina arises in the heart. Hemoglobin level in body depends on daily iron intake of patient through his diet. Carrot, spinach, apple etc..... contain enough amount of iron in them. Intake of iron rich diet fulfills daily iron requirements of body.

Working efficiency of kidneys:-

Working efficiency of kidneys can be diagnosed by blood urea and blood creatinine tests. If kidneys are not working properly then urea and creatinine level in blood increases. Increase of these products show that wastes are not excreted from the body in proper manner. Level of sodium and potassium in blood are also determined to diagnose whether kidneys are working efficiently.

Level of cholesterol:-

Amount of fat or cholesterol in the blood of heart patient is a very important diagnosis. To determine the level of fat in blood, cholesterol test is done. Increased level of fat can result in coronary artery disease. 

Sugar test:-

Blood glucose level in blood is measured first time on empty stomach and second time two hours after breakfast. Increase in blood glucose level can be harmful to heart patients. Increase in blood glucose level itself is known as diabetes.

Urine tests:-

Urine tests help to identify kidney disorders and diabetes. Both of them are closely related with heart. Various urine tests help us to identify the abnormalities present in body. Increased glucose level in urine is diagnosis of diabetes. Presence of protein in urine is a sign of kidney disorder. Presence of infection in urine is also a very important diagnostic feature. Urine tests help to diagnose the heart diseases.

Cat scanner and N.M.R. scanner can also determine heart diseases. These are modern methods. In order to treat heart diseases, many modern and scientific inventions have been made in the field of medicine and surgery. Heart transplantation, by pass surgery, arterial obstruction can be very well treated today and patient after surgery can spend a normal life.


There are many such heart diseases which can be treated with surgery. Today, lots of modern inventions and discoveries have been made in the field of surgery. Even the whole of heart can get transplanted. Through surgery, coronary artery disease, natal disease, disorders of valve etc..... can be corrected.

  • Bypass surgery:-

All of us are familiar with the word bypass and bypass surgical treatment. As the name itself describes that the bypass surgery means opening another way out for an obstructed blood vessel. Obstruction of blood vessel result in no further blood supply. To allow the blood to flow further, another artery is attached adjacent to the obstructed artery. This will make sure that the blood flows adequately.

Aorta is the main artery which carries blood from the heart to other body parts. Branches of aorta carries blood to different parts of the body. Two coronary arteries i.e., left coronary artery and right coronary artery which supplies heart are located near the root of the aorta. From left coronary artery another artery branches out. In this way, these 3 branches together fulfills the blood requirements of heart. Network of coronary arteries is distributed throughout the heart.

In the disease of coronary artery, if any of these get blocked with deposits of cholesterol then it will result in decrease of the blood flow to the heart. As a result, heart receives less amount of oxygen. If only one vessel among three gets blocked then it is known as single vessel disease. In such cases, surgeon has to find out one alternate way. If two blood vessels are blocked then two alternate ways have to be discovered. If all three blood vessels are blocked then three different ways have to be discovered.

If case of bypass surgery, incision is made in chest and heart is exposed. Patient is kept on heart lung machine. This is a life saving machine which throughout the surgery replaces and carries out functions of patient's heart and lungs. While the surgery is been carried out, heart completely stops working. All the functions are looked after by the life saving heart lung machine itself.

Many heart patients from all parts of the world are gifted with a new life with the help of this bypass surgery. This surgery though is very expensive but is also very popular. This surgery is very beneficial. After surgery, it is very essential that patient should not develop a habit of eating unbalanced diet. Patient should spend active life there after. If he does not do that then once again cholesterol will start accumulating in arteries. It is usually seen that 80% of the members after 5 years of surgery suffer from cholesterol been redeposited into the walls of their arteries. Thus, it is essential to follow a good diet, exercise regularly along with daily regular walk after bypass surgery.

  • Balloon angioplasty:-

This treatment is beneficial in case of those patients in whom only small portion of coronary artery gets blocked. There is no need to make an incision in patients chest to expose heart. Patient is discharged soon after the operation. This is a very effective method to open the constricted blood vessel.

In this technique, a small incision is made in artery which is located in patients limbs. A long, thin catheter is inserted in this incision and gradually it is pushed till coronary artery where blood flow is obstructed. After this, a thin wire on which balloon is tied is inserted in the catheter and brought in the area of obstruction. This balloon is filled with air when it reaches the artery where the area of obstruction is located. This exerts pressure on artery and thus obstruction within the artery opens up. This activity is carried out for 10-12 times. This cleans the obstruction within the artery and blood flow becomes adequate.

This therapy requires tow hours. Patient need not be made unconscious. This is comparatively less expensive then bypass surgery. If proper care is not taken patient may face death during this surgery. Sometimes, conditions may arise where patients need to undergo by pass surgery. There is also risk of constriction of artery which was dilated during the operation. Thus, patient has to take care of his diet and life style.   

  • Laser angioplasty:-

Laser angioplasty is a better technique then balloon angioplasty. This technique is also similar in procedure as balloon angioplasty. Laser is used in this technique. An incision is made in artery of the limb and catheter is introduced. Instead of wire, laser rays are sent till coronary artery where blood flow has been obstructed. Laser rays destroy the products which has resulted in obstruction. Once obstruction is destroyed, wall of artery becomes slippery. Risk of reforming of products resulting in obstruction is very less in this technique.

  • Atherectomy:-

With this technique too, obstruction of coronary artery can be treated. Instead of balloon or laser rays, in this technique a fountain of jet is used. Under the pressure of jet water, plaque settled within the artery breaks into pieces and route of artery opens up.

Surgical treatment of other heart diseases:-

Various types of heart diseases can be treated with surgery. Some of them are:-

  1. Treatment of constriction of aorta.
  2. Treatment of disorders formed in heart due to rheumatic fever.
  3. Treatment of swelling of pericardium in heart.
  4. Person injured in heart with gun shot, knife or any other wound can be treated with surgery.
  5. Septum separates heart into right and left. Sometimes kids are born with a hole in septum and this can be treated with surgery.
  6. Kids who are born blue commonly known as blue baby can be treated with surgery.
  7. If pulmonary artery which travels from heart to lungs become constricted or develops any disorder then it can be corrected with surgery.

In this way, diseases of heart can be corrected with surgical treatment. For this, advice of heart specialist is very essential. Here it is essential to know that heart specialist operates heart only if he feels that patients heart troubles cannot be corrected with medicines. Lots of time is required in these surgical treatments. Today, lots of development has been taken place in the field of surgery. As a result of this development, heart transplant is been carried out very successfully. Heart patients after surgical treatment are admitted to cardiac care unit (CCU) to recover completely.

Electric current treatment and pacemaker:-

Some patients often complain of raised heart beats. To treat this, patient is made unconscious. Through two long electrodes, electric current is applied on chest. This corrects irregularities of heart and as a result heart beats normally.

If heart beat has been decreased in number or if it is very irregular then it can be treated with pacemaker and catheter is inserted either from back of the neck or shoulder and carried through superiorvena cava to left atrium. Then from there through tricuspid valve it is carried till heart. This is fixed in ventricle. Other end of this catheter is attached to pacemaker which is fixed below the skin on the lungs. To keep pacemaker active, small battery is used and it works for 24 years. Now a days, self running pacemakers are used which when needed runs or stop working on their own. Many heart patients have been benefited from pacemaker.

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