The commercial production of hydrocarbons since 1917 and Venezuela today maintains its position as one of the world leaders in the oil market. Proven oil reserves currently reach approximately 65,000 million barrels. One of the largest deposits in the world, the Orinoco Belt contains recoverable volumes of over 40,000 million tonnes of Bitumen Natural, the largest known hydrocarbon deposit to date.

This reserve reflects the importance of our country as a secure supplier of energy future needs of the newly world and even the next century (XXII).

Orimulsion ® is the answer to energy needs such as non-conventional fossil fuel for electricity generation and industrial plants.

Origin of The Orimulsion

The fuel called Orimulsion ® originated from the need to extract extra oil to soil that had not initially interested in exploitation. By the time they were discovered deposits in the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela and was marketing light and medium crudes, which not only could be extracted, transported and refined at a lower cost but they may get more higher value products business such as Petrol, Lubricants, Kerosene etc. The fuel was oil residue remaining after removal of the other products. The price of residual fuel is lower than the prices of other products and is used mainly as fuel in Boats, Boilers, Power Plants, residual fuel oil with coal and also the lack of economic incentive not justify exploiting raw which there was no appropriate technology.

With the passage of time were the framing into a deeper conversion to allow more than light product of oil and less and less waste.

In Venezuela, there was an oil research institute in the year 1955 setting up the School of crude at the University of Zulia and there begin the first steps to research for oil in Venezuela. At that time there was no incentive to investigate because multinational companies operating in our country did all their research in their laboratories and pilot plants Abroad.

The petroleum research firm begins with the creation of PDVSA and Intevep. The first test-firing Orimulsion ® was held in the PDC-910 in plant facilities Intevep, this event marks the birth of a new fuel and whose acceptance in the markets has led to the creation of an attractive and profitable business, the emergence of an industrial alternative for generating electricity, opening a window of opportunity for placing the resources of the Orinoco Belt and the germ of a business as-Bitor Bitumenes Orinoco.

A study of the possible schemes for production, processing, transport and combustion being carried out jointly and Intevep Lagoven, raised a number of ways, and among the unconventional route by emulsification of the bitumen and burns.

By May 1985 there is a working draft and Lagoven Intevep between seeking to establish the technical basis for the operation, handling, transporting and burning fuel which by then had called with the name of Orinoco bitumen. Among other things, the document envisaged the implementation of a technical-economic study using conventional techniques to compare the costs involved versus Orinoco coal burning fuel and fuel oil. According to the roadmap, the description of new technologies for combustion optimization Orinoco included among its piloting activities to support technical and economic studies, which successfully conducted its pilot Intevep combustion. This event marks the birth of a new fuel in the international energy market that favors the creation of markets for reserves of the Orinoco Belt and enormous satisfaction for Intevep as a liquid fuel to the market for electricity generating plants and industrial plants.

The bitumen

Definition:

The pure Bitumenes (unprocessed) are mixtures of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds characterized by their binding properties *.

It's the ability to adhere to safe inert material to come loose.

Features:

* Not oil, are called non-conventional hydrocarbons.

* The bitumen is characterized by extremely high viscosity.

* It consists of hydrogen and carbon

* They are heavier than water, unlike oil and solidify at room temperature.

The bitumen is also called the residual product of vacuum distillation of crude oil in refineries, called asphalt *

* But it really "No" is what interests us in the case of Orimulsion ®.

Orinoco Oil Belt

Education:

Millions of years ago a large part of eastern Venezuela was under water, rivers carrying millions of tons of sedimentary material to the coastal zone to form large deltas. Over time, the sea receded, exposing the largest oil deposit known to date. The evolution of this process is so fascinating that it can be seen through the fossils preserved in these sediments.

Brief:

The Orinoco Oil Belt or Faja del Orinoco Bituminous as it is called first began exploring since 1920 sporadically not located surface manifestations of hydrocarbon exploitation of Bitumen and extra-heavy oil was uneconomical due to extremely high viscosity. Thanks to a new emulsion technology * developed by Intevep (a subsidiary of PDVSA), the crude can be produced cheaply and with minimum impact on the environment

* A liquid that has small particles suspended ** insoluble in water.

** It can not dissolve

Geographic Location:

It occupies the southern edge of the Eastern Basin of Venezuela, south of the States, Guarico, Anzoategui, Monagas and Delta Amacuro, parallel to the river Orinoco. It covers an area of 600 km. from east to west and 70 km. of North-South direction for a total approximate area of 54,000 km 2.

Divisions:

It was divided into four areas of exploration and drilling such as Machete, Zuata, Hamaca and Cerro Black (currently in operation).

The vast reserves of natural bitumen reach the 42 thousand metric tons and barrels approximate. 267 billion, which ensure reliable supply to the XXII century.

Orimulsion

Definitions:

* Liquid fuel produced using technology developed by PDVSA Intevep, SA and is composed of 70% natural bitumen, 30% water plus additives to stabilize the emulsion (surfactant *).

* These are emulsifying agents are added to promote emulsion stability. They form a molecular layer that acts as a barrier, which prevents the coalescence of small gothic **.

Gothic ** Agglomeration in an emulsion to form more voluminous granules, which forms one piece

* It is the trademark (trademark) due to fossil fuel that is produced from natural bitumen mixed with water.

Features:

It is the only fuel in the world of nature, ie an aqueous base that suspends a hydrocarbon that is a byproduct of refining, looks and handles heavy fuel is burned, however, consists of droplets of bitumen suspended in water.

Components:

30% Water

59% to 60% Carbon

0.7% to 0.9% Ash

2% to 2.8% Sulfur

7.2% to 7.8% Hydrogen

0.4% to 9.58% Nitrogen

0.53% to 0.60% Oxygen

Advantages:

One advantage of this fuel is that Venezuela could sell off the share of OPEC production and exports have a high incidence, the national treasury.

Versus Coal:

* It is cheaper.

* Generates 1KW / h of electricity like the Coal

* It is easier to handle liquid and store,

* It is cleaner

Process Orimulsion

* STEP 01: EXTRACTION.

By means of machinery is made Artificial Lift Method Injection Diluent. Bitumen is then removed and diluted with water mixed gas.

* STEP 02: HEATING.

The bitumen is placed in a boiler at a temperature of 122 ° C

* Step 03 SEPARATION OF GAS.

Gas diluted bitumen is separated from the wet and the gas passes through a compression system.

* STEP 04 DEHIDRATAC ION and desalination.

The water and the diluent are separated from the diluted bitumen damp. Where would stay only a natural bitumen. The diluent is again used for another extraction

* STEP 05 MIX

The natural bitumen is mixed with fresh water and surfactant through a static mixer, then through a dynamic one, where you add more water with additives. These go back to a static mixer where you get the product known as Orimulsion ®.

Storage and handling of Orimulsion

The storage terminal is located in Jose (Edo. Anzoátegui), covers an area of 70 hectares. These facilities house eight (8) tank of 250 thousand barrels each, for a total of 2,000,000 barrels.

It has a pumping system consisting of 15 pumps, which allow 4200 barrels per hour charge for each tanker.

Having started commercial supplies of Orimulsion ®, experiences in the facilities used by BITOR in Venezuela and foreign countries have shown that the product is stable for long periods of time.

Preliminary results show that make the conversion to Orimulsion ® in any type of boiler designed to burn Fuel Oil N ° 06 or Charcoal.

They also confirmed that the system, management and distribution of Orimulsion ® is not affected when the process is done through centrifugal screw pumps or low speed and maintaining the product despite accessories used in handling systems such as valves, elbows connections "T" reductions and expansions in pipes.

Transportation of Orimulsion

There are two types of transport, they are:

Transport:

It consists in the transfer of Orimulsion ® through a system of pipes 36 inches and 160 km long. It is technically simple and economical means of transport to another.

This transfer will be done as follows:

1. BLACK HILL-MORICHAL:

The pipeline extends from Black Mountain (Edo. Monagas) which makes the extraction process, until Morichal (Edo. Monagas) where the bitumen is processed, this first shipment covers only 70 km.

2. MORICHAL - JOSE:

This second shipment is of 310 km., It is made from black pudding to the Jose Terminal Storage (Edo. Anzoátegui)

* Shipping:

It is performed by injection of Orimulsion ®, from the Monoboya to the Tanker.

The monobuoy has three (3) floating hoses that are connected with the tanker, for the Charging of Orimulsion ®. Monoboya Note that the load is not only for the tankers, but tie-point them.

The tankers are double-hulled vessels that carry 250 thousand tons of Orimulsion ®. Berthing and sailing can be performed in harsh environmental conditions, requiring less assistance from tugs.

The energy potential of Orimulsion

Orimulsion ® is an environmental and economic alternative for the silver electric operated efficiently to other energy sources.

It can be used for different applications:

* Conventional power plants (steam turbines)

* In diesel engines for power generation.

* In cement plants.

* To feed systems for gasification combined cycle.

* As a fuel for sunburned (reburning) Orimulsion ® due to its excellent combustion properties can be used with this technique with outstanding results. The scorched to reduce up to 65% of NOx produced during combustion process.

Current Market of Orimulsion

BITOR PDVSA is a Business Unit of PDVSA Exploration and Production division, which belongs to Oil and Gas, a subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, SA responsible for holding and emulsification of natural bitumen, and supply and marketing of Orimulsion ®.

Currently, Orimulsion ® is widely marketed on three continents. To meet and satisfy the needs of customers, PDVSA BITOR is headquartered in Caracas, Venezuela, serving the China market, Korea, Philippines and Latin America. It also has subsidiaries in North America (BITOR AMERICA CORPORATION), Europe (BITOR EUROPE LIMITED), (BITOR ITALIA SRL) and Asia (MC BITOR LIMITED), in order to meet market demands and our customers.

Bitor America Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary of BITOR, registered in the United States, headquartered works in Boca Raton, Florida. It is responsible for market Orimulsion ® in the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico.

Bitor Europe Limited, with offices in London, is a company registered in the UK, whose aim is the marketing of Orimulsion ® in the countries of northern Europe and from Africa.

MC Bitor Limited, is responsible for the development of trade agreements in the Far East, with responsibility for markets in Asia and Oceania. It is a joint venture between Mitsubishi Corporation and BITOR, in which each partner has a 50% shareholding. Their offices are in Tokyo.

Power plants working with orimulsion

The basic customers who have greater experience with the use of Orimulsion ® as are Japan, Canada and Denmark. These customers have provided the basis and reference to Venezuela has been able to market Orimulsion ®, as they have obtained satisfactory results. Currently you can add to this group of countries Italy, since it is one customer that has burned more than Orimulsion ® to any other customer, but still not have a significant track record, because you only have two years in the market Orimulsion ®.

The following briefly explains the features which have the plant in Japan, Canada and Denmark.

Kashima, kita. Japan.

Conversion units: 125 and 95 MW (megawatts).

* FGD (Flu Gas Desulfurication) installed before use of Orimulsion ®

* They use Orimulsion ® since 1991.

* Replaced Fuel Oil / refinery waste.

* Compliance with stringent environmental standards.

* Recovery of metals from the ashes.

* This is an example of clean and efficient combustion of Orimulsion ®

* Was the basis for project approval gobo (4400 mw) using 50 / 50 fuel oil / Orimulsion ®

Dalhousie, CNAD.

* Conversion units: 215 and 100 MW (megawatts).

* Installed FGD (Flu Gas Desulfurication) to control sulfur emissions.

* Using Orimulsion ® at full capacity since 1994.

* Replaced coal high in sulfur / Fuel Oil

* Compliance with stringent environmental standards.

* Community satisfied by improving environmental quality

* 1995 Prize magazine "power" by:

Demonstrate commercial viability of Orimulsion ® in North America.

Innovative response to fuel oil price fluctuations.

* Mayor and local government representatives Dalhousie allies that support the use of Orimulsion ® worldwide. Mayor participated in meetings of "Sitting Board in defense of the proposed conversion of the plant Manatee FP & L

Asnaes, denmark.

* FGD (Flu Gas Desulfurication) installed in 1993.

* The plant can use coal and liquid fuels.

* Using Orimulsion ® since 1995 in unit of 650 MW (megawatts).

* One of the most efficient power plants in Europe.

* Complying with environmental standards in Europe

* This is an example of clean and efficient combustion of Orimulsion ®

* Orimulsion ® has enabled:

1. Reduce by 15% the emissions of carbon dioxide vs. Coal.

2. Reduce production vs. Ash. Coal.

3. Ash processed in the UK (Harwich)

International trading companies.

or NORTH AMERICA.

Bitor America Corporation.

or EUROPE

Bitor Europe Limited

or Far East.

MC Bitor Limited

Current portfolio of projects

South Korea.

With Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) is developing a project to convert Young Nam Plant (2 x 200 MW) currently operating at very low load. It is estimated that the plant will begin to use Orimulsion ® in 2003.

China.

With China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) are developing commercial tests on the soles of Shengli, Xindian and Shanghai Jinshan Petrochemical. In the year 2000 are estimated supply of 500 thousand tons. After the tests will start the installation of gas cleaning equipment in the plants in question and allow the continued use of Orimulsion ®. The amount of Orimulsion ® that will burn continuously between 2 and 4 million tons per year from 2002.

Brazil.

With Conoco Power is structuring the project to use Orimulsion ® at the plant in Santa Cruz (2 x 100 + 1x200 MW), which is in the bidding process FURNAS, state-owned utility

Brazilian.

Canada.

With New Brunswick are negotiating terms for the conversion of Coleson Cove plant (3 x 330 MW) of fuel oil to Orimulsion ®, beginning to use from 1.6 to 2.4 million tonnes per year from 2004. This would be the second floor of Orimulsion ® in Canada.

Northern Ireland.

With North Ireland Generation (nigen) is developing a project to convert Kilroot Plant (2 x 300 MW) currently uses coal and fuel oil as fuel. It is estimated that the plant will begin to burn Orimulsion in 2003.

Other Projects.

Other projects are being developed in Canada, USA, Philippines, Germany, Japan, Thailand, Taiwan, Turkey, Guatemala and Costa Rica

Future Market

New power plant in Guatemala.

* Building a new power plant with a capacity of 150 megawatts.

* The plant will have gas cleaning equipment FGD (Flu Gas Desulfurication) and ESP (electrostatic precipitator).

* Begin operating in 2001.

* The estimated consumption of Orimulsion Serra 300.000TM year.

* It would be the first plant in Latin America to use Orimulsion.

* The total investment is 270 million dollars.

The winning consortium Guatemalan Generating Group, Orimulsion supply with the lowest cost generation in the Central American area.

New power plants, Dominican Republic.

* Project for a new plant of 200 megawatts.

* You will have gas cleaning equipment FGD (Flu Gas Desulfurication) and ESP (electrostatic precipitator).

* The use of Orimulsion will be in the order of 500,000 MT per year.

* Is expected to begin operations in about 3 years would be located in San Pedro de Macoris.


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