History of Transportation – Your Complete Guide
Definition of transportation
Transportation is a means of moving people or goods from one place to another. The modern commercial transport serves the public interest and includes all the means and facilities involved in the movement of persons or property, and reception services, shipping and handling of such goods. The commercial transport of persons classified as passenger and the goods and service goods. As elsewhere in the world, transport is in Latin America and has been central to the progress or backwardness of different civilizations and cultures.
History of transportation
Already in the pre-Columbian Inca period had a crude but efficient system of interconnected roads throughout his empire, by which different types of goods moved. On foot or on the back of flames, managed to get their goods to their destination. Sometimes through rope bridges through the mountains. Other people used canoes or boats as a means of communication.
Different means of transport
It is generally used five modes of transportation: water, road, rail and air.
The arrival of Europeans, Spanish and Portuguese, along most of America produced major changes in transportation. The main mode of communication was by sea, as it was more efficient and faster for natural harbors, and for places that were built in the ports, both sea and rivers of America.
Environment created for easy water transport. The opening of this waterway was created to a considerable reduction in travel time in freight by sea worldwide.In Latin America, the Amazon and Parana rivers are important waterways for navigation, but undoubtedly the most important channel is the Panama Canal. This links the Atlantic to the Pacific across the Isthmus of Panama.
The early development of water transport was stimulated by the tendency of people to concentrate on the coast or waterways. The ancient Romans used to sail boats equipped with several banks of oars to transport their armies to Carthage and other theaters of operations. Shipbuilding and rigging and sail handling was improved over time. With these changes, together with the adoption of the mariner's compass, made possible the open sea navigation without sight of land.
As was true during the ancient age in the Mediterranean and other world regions, the fact that colonial settlements in America were usually established on the coasts, rivers or lakes, was a cause and consequence of which the first transport routes in the colonies were natural waterways, and more efficient modes of travel be made by boat.
The first ship was undoubtedly a floating log which would lead to feet and hands. After joining several trunks thought they could build ties with a firm platform or raft (as he called them).In Egypt were built with bundles of reed rafts, in other places hollowed logs for canoes or kayaks.
Around 1200 years BC, the Phoenicians were early seafarers used cedar wood to build boats large and strong to venture beyond their marine boundaries.
The Vikings, built on a solid wooden structure that resembled our spine. The Vikings were tall, strong and sturdy, this allowed wielding oars and hoisted huge square sails, came from the northeastern coast of Europe and were responsible for assaulting coastlines across Europe.
During the nineteenth century saw dramatic progress through technology product of steam power. The Clermont, the first efficient steamboat, was built by the American inventor Robert Fulton. She made her maiden voyage in 1807 by the Hudson River from New York City to Albania, which made the distance traveled round trip of nearly 483 km in 62 hours.
The first ship to use steam power in a transatlantic crossing was the American ship Savannah in 1819, though the candles were used during part of the 29-day trip. By 1840, while a steamer could make six trips between America and Europe at the same time a sailboat could do only three. During the 1870s they reached the coast of Rio de la Plata, the French ship Le Frigidaire, including some refrigerators. This produced a breakthrough in the production mode of the meat sector, which should no longer be salted for export. Other perishables were benefited with refrigeration.
The diesel engine has made for a more modern ships economy that has largely replaced the steam engines. The use of nuclear energy in vessels is currently limited to military vessels. Other developments in modern navigation are the hovercraft, boat going on a cushion of air a few inches of water or the ground, equipped with reactors or wings like those of a plane or studs that at a certain speed, lift the hull of the water to reach higher speeds.
Among the latest developments of man in water transport, we find the small boats yachts that are intended for use by a small group of people, are equipped with the latest technological advances and can sail at sea.
Another important invention is the ski bike, which is the result of the quest for human beings to create devices for fun, is also used as a means to rescue people with a water accident as they are quick and increasingly a little larger ( for these uses).
In the twentieth century training and installation of large corporations, manufacturers have given great impetus to the production of both vehicles for private use to public transport and goods, and exports to third countries. With economic growth of recent years is expected to reach Brazil and Argentina soon levels of use of vehicles at the same level as developed countries.
In the thirteen original American colonies, which extended westward to the Mississippi River, the main mode of land transportation was by train of pack animals and horses on the trails of Native Americans.
By 1800 it became dirt roads to remove the weeds and trees of the trails. Many of these roads, however, became almost impassable during periods of bad weather. In 1820, the improvement of roads called turnpikes (motorways), in which private companies charged a toll for having built, connecting all major cities to surpass all other roads.
Ground transportation developed more slowly. For centuries the traditional means of transport, restricted to riding on animals, carts and sleighs pulled by animals, rarely exceeded an average of 16 km / h. Land transport has improved slightly until 1820, when the British engineer George Stephenson adapted a steam engine to a locomotive and started, between Stockton and Darlington in England, the first steam railway.
It was in the twentieth century when most developed road network in Spain. Successive governments have invested heavily to get a basic high-capacity roads (motorways and expressways) that allow the displacement of large numbers of people and goods through the Spanish territory of motorization levels close to the major industrialized countries.
In Latin America, the horse, mule and wheeled transport were introduced by Spanish and Portuguese. They often took advantage of the routes constructed by the Indians.Already in the eighteenth century there were existing roads linking the Argentine cities of Tucumán and Buenos Aires, Mexico City and Guadalajara with its neighbors Jalapa, and the Andes (Peru) and Paita. Also in Brazil coastal highways were built.
Nevertheless, today many Latin American countries have road systems more or less acceptable, with Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, the countries with the highest number of kilometers of roads improved and paved. In 1928, it was agreed between the countries of the sector to build a Pan-American highway that would unite the entire continent from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego. In 1940 62% of the tranche for Central America was paved and 87% of South America.
The drag and the wheel
The transport started when our ancestors came down from the trees and begin their nomadic life.The man forced the man to move to ensure their food, with this, how to ship home anything about their food as the man himself is weak and animal transport.
The wheel, important invention that man invented 5.500 years ago and this initiated a change in the mode of transport and transfer of achievement so forth their food faster and easier.
Animals for transportation
Because the man did not have enough strength to lift and carry food or utensils for themselves was the need to domesticate animals.The dog was the first domestic animal to man, then use larger animals and extremely strong to carry heavy things with the same man. And how well that ideology only carry things, if not the man who also use as food, and feeding on what occurred or killing animals for meat and take skin and for different uses.
With the coming of the trade, man was given to the need to establish trade routes and also to create the first steps pulled by horses to be transported from one place to another to the same people and their belongings or goods.
By 1830, shortly after the rail line began service Stephenson in England, the United States had 1767 km of steam railways. In 1839, the route had increased to 8,000 km and from 1850 to 1910 the growth of the railroad was spectacular. Railroad construction stimulated much of the settlement and development of the West. The first railroad in America was established in 1827, but the real development began on July 4, 1828, with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.
The introduction of the railway in Spain was relatively quick. Was stimulated in part by the lack of inland waterways, unlike other surrounding countries. The first railway was opened in 1848 between the cities of Barcelona. By 1870 already had a network that was the third in Europe in area, after France and England. However, the decision in 1844 to provide a gauge of the Spanish railway network different from the isolated European continent to Spain from the rest of the continent by this mode of transport.
After a century of private operation of rail in 1941 establishing the Network of Spanish Railways (RENFE), a state of nature to exploit much of the railway line. In recent decades, improved road infrastructure and increasing motorization of families and businesses have led to a sharp decrease in the number of passengers and goods transported by train. However, the introduction of high speed services in recent years have led to considerable recovery of passengers on journeys in the network too.
After 1850 this mode of transport started its expansion in Latin America. The railway network, financed by French capital, English or American, while benefiting freight and passengers generally designed to respond to business needs of their owners and countries of origin and not addressing the needs of Latin American countries. In Argentina, the railroads had their terminals in the port cities: Buenos Aires and Bahia Blanca, on the coast, and Rosario on the Parana River. The same happened in the Uruguayan city of Montevideo. In Brazil, the railway network spread across the plateau of São Paulo, since there was concentrated the production of precious coffee. The Mexican case is paradoxical, since the same railway used to transport finished products to be, at the beginning of the century, the fundamental basis for the transportation of revolution.
It was around 1945 when the railways began to be deficient, giving way to road transport, both passenger-and freight-all. In this way, and it is not beneficial to their owners, most of the Latin American rail system was nationalized, often under false nationalist discourse.
Man saw the need for man transported individually and in 1818 invented Draisienne history of the bicycle. Two-wheeled vehicle, placed one in front of another, with a seat, handlebars and pedals to drive to propel it. Also find the unicycle and the motorcycle.
Vehicle with 2, 3 and 4 wheel, self-propelled, no way and sometimes it can be used by 2 persons and are now reaching a speed of 100 km / hour.
Man looking for ways to invent a device that transports you quickly and easily without the need to use animals. In 1882, with the discovery of oil, discovered that using Gottlielo Damler oil, could drive a faster piston gradually more inventions arose with the application of oil and fine steel was cheaper than the one they use in production Henry Ford, thus created the car.
The wars have developed new kinds of automobiles such as tanks and buses.After varieties of cars came and today the auto industry is one of the great and important in the world, were considered a luxury and now can be seen today having a car is not a luxury, if not that is a need.
Already at present there are too many people, the authorities saw the need for urban transport to the high number of inhabitants and also the necessity in which they are forced to travel long distances. Either a bus or a combination.
It has been an effective means of transport in big cities since it consumes electrical energy, is set below ground and the maintenance cost is low and does not pollute.
The bullet train
We can observe the evolution of the railroad that has been refined and is more common in Japan.
Air transport is the modern form of transportation developed quickly. Although the pioneers of American aviation, Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first flight in heavier-than air at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, in 1903, it was not until after World War I when the transport air reached a prominent place in all countries.
After World War II commercial air carriers were even greater momentum when the aircraft engines became larger and more efficient. A major breakthrough occurred in 1958 with the inauguration, by the British and U.S. airlines, jet aircraft for commercial transport. Apart from supersonic aircraft, a breakthrough in air travel was the introduction in 1970 of the Boeing 747, the so-called jumbo jet which can carry from 360 to more than 500 passengers on scheduled flights.
In Spain is equally important air transport mode, both for domestic flights and for international. The first is basic to the relations between the territories Balearic and Canary Island with the peninsula, also the gaps in the Peninsula between the capital and coastal cities have made profitable by air travel. The international hubs have grown increasingly important due to its strategic location on the Peninsula in the world, especially in relations between Latin America and European countries, the fact that it is a major world tourist destination.
Air transport also has the fastest growing in the last 40 years in Latin America. Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela are the countries with the highest number of miles flown on scheduled airlines. Latin American cities (Mexico City, Buenos Aires, Paulo and Rio de Janeiro) are the principal point of origin and destination of the region, but regularly the airlines operating flights to the Far East, Near East, Europe, USA and Canada. Colombia, in 1919, was the first country that had commercial airlines.
One of the oldest dreams of man was to fly and it is thus starts a continuous search for inventing devices to help sail the air.Lilienthal, inspired by the birds, dialed glider aerodynamics that are used today for the same aircraft. Leonardo Da Vinci also pioneered the creation of aircraft. The first powered flight was made by Orville and Wilbur Wright on December 17, 1903 that lasted only 12 seconds.
In 1700 was when the experiment using balloons lighter than air and thus invented the balloon. It was both the rise of hydrogen balloons lifted by a balloon that was created passengers, but the uncertainty of this means of transport currently used as a means of entertainment.
Propeller aircraft and helicopter
Emerged in the first world war, but WWII is when you take your limit on propeller-driven aircraft. Today has been supplanted by the airplane engine powered by jet propulsion. The helicopter, reaches its fulfillment in the Second World War, now serves as an effective means of transport and service in big cities because most buildings and hotels have them.
The aviation industry has achieved a significant importance because it makes airplanes as fast as the speed of light, space scout ships, big ships to give passengers around the world.
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