Biomass as energy source

In today's world many problems. One problem is the energy supply. At present it is mainly met by burning fossil fuels. This is economically advantageous because it is relatively inexpensive. But it makes for adverse effects. And it comes at much extra CO2 for free, thus CO2 forms a mantle around the Earth which causes less heat escapes. This leads to global warming that causes the water level rises

In today's world many problems. One problem is the energy supply. At present it is mainly met by burning fossil fuels. This is economically advantageous because it is relatively inexpensive. But it makes for adverse effects. And it comes at much extra CO2 for free, thus CO2 forms a mantle around the Earth which causes less heat escapes. This leads to global warming that causes the water level rises, climate change and more deserts will arise. There are also other problems with fossil fuels that do not relate to the environment. For example, the finite supply of this fuel. It takes many millions of years before new oil is made from sediments. In addition, oil is increasingly coveted, which results in exploitation and wars.

But there are alternatives. Many of them are still in their infancy, but alternatives such as biomass are already a real alternative. Biomass is a collective term for plant and animal materials of organic origin from which energy can be obtained. Biomass can be won in many ways. For example, existing forests are used for biomass production fields but can also be built specifically for growing biomass. This is a clear difference. On the one hand, the non-renewable resources, such as deforestation, on the other hand, renewable sources such as the recycling of plant residues from agriculture. In this report, the situations from the position of public viewing. The government has the important task of converting fossil fuels to biomass fuels as well coordinated and to ensure the competitiveness of the biomass is enhanced. The Ministry should provide the planning, and also consider the environment. This report will be investigated to the question, what is the vision of the Ministry of biomass in the future. To answer this question will look at the situation at the moment, what's next, what are the opinions of the Environment and what the obstacles may be in the field of biomass. There are some things to be reckoned with. Thus, the Ministry only one of many links that decides what happens. There are many conventions which helps define policies such as the Kyoto treaty. It states that CO2 emissions must be reduced significantly for a better environment. Also, consumers need to understand that the use of biomass necessary for a sustainable society. Consumers are not keen on innovations that are not financially attractive.

Biomass, what is it and how durable is it?

Biomass in the Netherlands is a common form of green energy, about 90% of 'our' green power directly or indirectly from the processing or combustion starting biomass. But what actually is biomass? What types are, how it is processed and what can we do with it?

Biomass

Biomass is a collective name for organic waste through various processes can be converted back into usable energy. In most cases, biomass from plant debris, but it can also consist of animal (manure) or human (sewage) waste. Biomass, in most cases, however, divided on the basis of moisture content:

..:: Dry biomass:

dry biomass is comprised of various dried organic materials. It is usually used as fuel in specially-equipped plants. It can also be blended with coal plants to this somewhat sustainable. The dried peat (turf) formerly much used, falls into this category.

..:: Wet Biomass:

Biomass consists of wet wet wastes. Think of sewage sludge, manure and 'fresh' organic waste. It can be dried into combustible pellets, but can also be converted by fermentation to biogas and ethanol.

A separate class that is difficult to qualify, the vegetable and animal fats. While some of these can be used directly as fuel, other products or used as cooking grease.

Processing

Raw biomass is usually not just be used. It must be used before it is first processed into a useful product. The biomass is below both processes a finished product as an intermediate product:

..:: Presses:

the pressing of biomass can be used to get rid of the biomass may be useful fats. The remaining fraction may be dried as fuel or fodder. Pressed bricks are ideal for combustion, and because it is very easy to burn.

..:: Grinding:

The grinding of biomass increases the contact surface and is useful for making a substance brandbaarder.
Fermentation: in bioamassa fermenting yeast is a bacteria is added to a container. Under the influence of a lack of oxygen is this methane gas (biogas). Also in this way useful alcohols such as ethanol extraction.

..:: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis:

during this process, biomass is burned incompletely. It is a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) Fri These substances can be combined into useful hydrocarbons.

Sustainability

The burning of biomass is basically a CO2-neutral process, the CO2 emitted is a part of today's carbon cycle and will be in growing new crops through photosynthesis in the plant structure again recorded. This contrasts Despite this fact, the resistance of biomass matter of debate. The following arguments are put forward against the sustainability of biomass:

..:: Particulate matter:

in addition to biomass burning are also CO2 particulates and various nitrogen oxides (NOx) Fri Although modern filtration techniques can do a lot, running a little behind the legislation worldwide.

..:: Production:

production (breeding) and transportation of biomass fuel. This is mostly fossil fuel, making biomass a net negative balance.

..:: Food Prices:

The main argument is that the rising demand for biomass crops like sugarcane production may adversely affect food crops. He caused a food shortage, and an increase in food prices.

In biomass heating

What and how does breeding in biomass. What are the dangers and what is there to do? Breeding in stored biomass is a relatively unfamiliar topic. Although everyone has heard of hay fires which spontaneously in haystacks and bales.

What is breeding?

Forcing is a process that depends on the product in which it occurs, occurs fairly rapidly. Several factors are needed for breeding. One of these factors is biomass, large amounts of wood chips, coal, wood pellets or cocoa, but also the hope familiar straw and hay on the farm.

Another factor forcing is needed moisture. If the product more than 15% moisture is a risk of scalding. In combination with oxygen and biological or chemical processes in the organic material that heat can not escape. Because nowhere is this heat, the temperature rises, sometimes so high that the material spontaneously ignites. But before that, there are a number of processes preceded. To 60-70 degrees Celsius, it is mainly the biological processes that predominate. Microorganisms generate heat that can rise to the above 60-70 degrees. At these high temperatures keep the microorganisms it a day.

At this time, the two sides, in most cases the temperature to stabilize and even decline. In some cases, however, forcing the chemical to enter. Carbon is converted into carbon dioxide and consequently the temperature can quickly rise to above 100 degrees Celsius and all moisture will evaporate. At the moment no more moisture present in the biomass, the temperature continues to rise until the point that the product spontaneously burst into flame.

Difficult to predict the greenhouse is that it behaves differently in each product. For instance, consider that, for example palm kernel the scalding process takes days, while a mixture of sewage sludge, paper and wood, but the process takes several hours.

Control

It is therefore important to good biomass stored in the monitor. This can be done by measuring the temperature. The difficult thing here is that temperatures in a quite large amount of biomass can vary by location. Thus it is possible that the measured temperature is 50 degrees, while on one meter, the temperature 70 degrees right, because this place is wetter. There are also forcing detectors on the market which the CO, H2 and NOx gases over a combustible mass measurement, before a fire starts.

Measures

Once breeding is found, one can choose to disassemble the biomass and distribution. However, this is a temporary measure, because when the product is swept back together, the process starts again from scratch. It can also be chosen for the purging with nitrogen, which cools the product and expels the oxygen which is needed for breeding. The best way to prevent overheating is to make sure the stored biomass dry. Because in a bone-dry product will not create greenhouse gases.

Especially the latter problem is economists and various think tanks working hard. The question is how far the biomass production can continue without the poorest parts of the world to take with food shortages. Although biomass is a good source of CO2-neutral energy can be, there are also obvious disadvantages to this approach. Or biomass in the future will remain viable, is debatable.


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