As summer season arrives in most part of the country, it brings with it killer heat which everyone finds difficult to cope with. Every year it becomes a part of concern as every year its duration as well as intensity keeps increasing. Rainy season approaches late and thus people have to bear with summer time for a longer period. Rain is becoming scanty in most part of the earth. Though it brings a relief from scorching sun rays and cools the environment but scanty rainfall again has become a matter of concern and posing a difficulty and raising a question regarding survival of life on earth. Deforestation and global warming are the main reasons because of which one has to face intense heat not only in summers but even during rest of the year. However, during summer all the records get broken and degrees of temperature rises to unexpected and unbearable levels.

Earlier only certain areas of our country like Rajasthan were known to be unbearable during summers as it falls in rain shadow area and receives very less amount of rain making summers very difficult to bear. However, today there is a whole different scenario. Almost all the states have become unbearable in summers when the sun is on full throttle. Most of us during summers go for a vacation on hill stations so that we can escape the heat of the plains at least for a few days. Though the weather is pleasant over there but there too every year temperature is rising. Evenings and early mornings are pleasant and temperature falls down during nights but throughout the day one can see sufficient amount of heat even on hill stations.

Summer And Sweating Mechanism:-

Summer heat can kill a person if care is not taken. Thus, we can see thousands of shelter-less people who cannot tolerate the heat of scorching sun, pass away. Coping ability with heat depends on health of an individual. If he is healthy, he will be able to bear with the heat and if he is not healthy and does not take proper care, he may lend into serious trouble. Our bodies sweat when the temperature rises and this is because it is trying to maintain its temperature. Though we often complain of stickiness and furious sweating but it is a mechanism by which body cools down itself. Numerous blood vessels are present in our skin. Rise of temperature outside also rises temperature of body. Brain sends a signal which causes dilation of blood vessels. Dilation results in increase in blood flow towards surface. More and more amount of fluids are supplied and as a result we sweat. This sweat when comes in contact with warm air outside gets evaporated and body temperature decreases as it cools the surface.

Fluid Intake During Summers:-

During summers, most of the people suffer from dehydration and get admitted to the hospital. Furious sweating during summer uses up lots of body fluids and thus one has to take care to replenish the lost fluid at the earliest. One has to drink more and more amount of water at frequent intervals along with fruit juices, coconut water and even glucose water for some energy. Carelessness to drink enough water can make a person face certain serious consequences. One should not wait to drink water until he is thirsty. Thirst cannot be kept as an indicator during summers. Sports person require more water as lots of body fluids is lost during exercising. Sports drink are also good as along with water they also replenish lost sodium content. Alcohol should be completely avoided. Caffeinated drinks also should be best avoided during summers. Alcohol, caffeinated drinks all result in excess of loss of water.

Food Intake During Summers:-

Food taken during summer should be light, if one wishes to avoid constipation. Since summer is the time when one drinks more amount of water and other fluids, digestion will definitely get interfered because of excess of fluid consumption and the food will remain in stomach for a prolonged time resulting in bloating and heaviness. One should always prefer small meals which mainly constitute of fruits and vegetables which are high in water content. Proteins and fat causes increased heat production. Thus, digestive system needs to work hard for its break down and also results in increased amount of loss of water.

Care To Tackle Summer:-

During summers, it is best to avoid to go outdoors, especially one should try his best to avoid after noon heat and stay indoors. Air-conditioning is a great relief but in its absence electric fans can also provide some sort of relief. One should take care and try not to sit in an enclosed space as heat builds up over there very quickly. One has to take advantage of early mornings and evenings in summer when the temperature decreases to some amount to cool their homes. When the temperature outside is less, doors and windows should we opened so that the warm air present inside house escapes and cool air enters inside which will ultimately cool down temperature of house and make summer nights bearable. Cool shower twice or thrice a day also seems to provide great relief in summers especially a quick shower before bed time will ensure a good night sleep and freedom from whole days stickiness. Do not open windows and door when the temperature outside is unbearable especially during noon. During such times, make use of drapes and blinds to keep house dark and cool.

High Risk Individuals:-

Unhealthy individuals like diabetics, patients suffering from lungs, kidney and heart related disorders, patients suffering from circulatory disorders, high blood pressure patients are at high risk during summers. Even obese individuals along with old aged individuals will find great discomfort in coping with summers. Great care has to be taken in case of infants and toddlers during summers. Certain drugs like anti-histamines, sedatives, diuretics etc..... does not allow perspiration which is a matter of great concern for patients taking them regularly as sweating is essential to decrease body temperature and in its absence body temperature can rise up to expected level resulting in critical situations.

Health Related Issues Associated With Summer:-

Summer brings with it lots of other troubles too. As skin constantly gets sweaty, red rashes develop over it. These rashes can be itchy and pose a problem when comes in constant friction with rubbing of clothes. Similarly, summer acne is another issue people usually suffer from. To get rid of rashes and acne, try to remain in a cool atmosphere and keep body as much clean, cool and dry as possible. Prickly heat powders available in markets provide a great relief as they soak up the extra moistness and keeps body dry and free from micro-organisms. We usually see people fainting or suffering from lightheadedness and this is all because of excess exposure of oneself to the scorching heat of summer sun and also dehydration is another cause. Thus, try to expose to sun as little as possible and keep body completely hydrated and fresh. To get relief from summer heat, we usually gulp down a full bottle of icy cold water, cold-drinks etc..... within a few seconds. This much of low temperature pushed down in one's stomach is not good. This usually causes cramps. One has to drink cold water or other sorts of cold drinks but it should be that icy-cold which instead of benefiting us is making a harm to our body and health. If one notices difficulty in breathing or fatigueness, one should immediately seek medical help.

Precautions To Be Taken During Summer:-

During summers, avoid exposure to sun during hottest hours and if one cannot avoid them then take complete precautions like wearing a hat or covering head with some cloth so that heat does not get absorbed. Always carry an umbrella, preferably a black one as it absorbs excess heat and keep us protected and away from heat. Wear light colored cotton clothes. Avoid wearing clothes made from other synthetic materials. Clothes should not fit very tightly as during summers it is essential we allow our skin to breathe. Always apply suitable sunscreen lotions or creams at least half an hour before exposing one self to sun to all the exposed areas of body. This prior application will make sure that sunscreen has been well absorbed in the skin causing less harm and good protection from sun rays. In fact, expose body parts as little as possible. This will avoid darkening or sun-tanning. Avoid doing heavy weight lifting exercises or strenuous work during summers. Always carry water or sport drinks if one has to go outside. Seek medical help if one has reached the stage of heat exhaustion or heat stroke. But if proper care is taken, one will not reach a stage of heat stroke. Proper care will ensure minimal trouble ensuring no health related issues and help a person to spend his summer pleasantly without much botheration.

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